GET /services/rest/programs/?title=*Jupiter*
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{
    "count": 151,
    "next": "http://archive.gemini.edu/services/rest/programs/?page=2&title=%2AJupiter%2A",
    "previous": null,
    "results": [
        {
            "id": 1600,
            "program_id": "GS-2011B-Q-11",
            "pi_coi_names": "Leigh Fletcher, Michelle Edwards, Patrick Irwin, Glenn Orton, Nicholas Teanby, Agustin Sanchez-Lavega",
            "title": "Jupiter's Global Dynamics a Decade after Cassini:  Spectroscopic Mapping",
            "abstract": "Visible observers have monitored a number of spectacular meteorological transformations in Jupiter's dynamic atmosphere in the decade (one jovian year) since Cassini acquired near-global thermal-IR spectroscopy.  Some of those changes (Jupiter's reappearing South Equatorial Belt (SEB), interactions between the Great Red Spot (GRS) and other vortices) were spectrally mapped in the N-band by Gemini/TRECS during 2010B.  However, the absence of near-simultaneous Q-band spectroscopy to determine Jupiter's temperature structure hampers the analysis of compositional variations in the N-band, and prevents an identification of the vertical motions and changes to atmospheric stability associated with these transitions.   We propose classical-mode observations to obtain Q- and N-band spectral maps from pole to pole over three nights.  Temperatures, cloud cover and the distributions of dynamical tracers (PH3, NH3 and C2H6) will be derived to study (a) large-scale climatic variations in temperatures, winds and atmospheric stability in the time since Cassini, (b) modifications to equatorial upwelling, (c) strengthening or dissipation of Jupiter's GRS, (d) asymmetries in chemistry and aerosols between the two poles, and (e) the long-term effects of the SEB revival that started in 2010B.  We intend to obtain the first north-south map of Jupiter's temperatures and composition since Cassini in 2000.",
            "piemail": "fletcher@atm.ox.ac.uk",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:29:21.478684Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27656,
            "program_id": "GS-2022A-FT-212",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jorge A. Sanchez, Peter Smith, Megan Mansfield, Jennifer Patience, Michael Line, Matteo Brogi, Jacob Bean, Vivien Parmentier, Joost Wardenier, Eliza Kempton, Luis Welbanks, Siddharth Gandhi",
            "title": "Revealing the Composition of the Canonical Hot Jupiter HD209458b",
            "abstract": "Determining the nature of planetary atmospheres is a key objective of exoplanet science. A planet’s atmosphere contains a wealth of diagnostic information on basic planetary conditions like climate and composition, with the latter a diagnostic of planetary formation conditions. Most atmosphere characterization (abundance and temperature determinations) has been driven by low resolution space- based transit spectroscopy. A novel ground-based approach that leverages high spectral resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy has been steadily gaining in its utility and reliability for atmospheric characterization. We propose to perform high spectral resolution time series cross- correlation transmission spectroscopy of the canonical transiting hot Jupiter, HD209458b using the IGRINS spectrograph on Gemini-S. While well-studied, the atmosphere of HD209458b has presented some controversial compositional constraints, specifically, past transmission spectroscopy observations from HST and from the ground (CRIRES, GIANO) have revealed a potentially sub-solar water abundance and elevated abundances of carbon species (HCN, CH4), suggestive of a carbon-enriched atmosphere. These results are contradictory to thermal emission/dayside eclipse observations with HST. To test the high C/O hypothesis we will obtain transmission spectra of HD209458b, leveraging the high spectral resolution (~45,000, broad spectral grasp (1.47 – 2.48 um)) of IGRINS, and innovative Bayesian cross- correlation analysis methods. This will enable us to detect (or rule out) the presence of H2O, CO, CH4, NH3, and HCN providing a difinitive constraint on the carbon-to-oxygen ratio in the atmosphere of HD209458b. ",
            "piemail": "jasanchez@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-21T12:43:02.152279Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 2455,
            "program_id": "GS-2007B-Q-229",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Padma Yanamandra-Fisher, James De Buizer, Tom Hayward, Agustin Sanchez-Lavega, Olivier Mousis, Leigh Fletcher, Amy  Simon-Miller",
            "title": "Investigation of the Physical and Chemical State of Jupiter During an Episode of Global Instability",
            "abstract": "We propose to measure the physical and chemical state of regions of Jupiter which underwent major changes in visual appearance since our February T-Recs observations.  The southern half of the North Temperate Belt (NTBs) dramatically darkened, and the dark southern half of the South Equatorial Belt (SEBs) brightened, both changes are associated with rare events known as \"global upheavals\".  We propose to re-map the NTBs and SEBs as early as possible, to detemine changes of temperature, the opacity of an NH3 cloud, and the abundances of NH3, PH3 and para-H2 gases.    The observations will supplement cloud color and horizontal wind measurements from HST WFPC images on June 5.  These measurments will discriminate between models of the cloud brightening as being the result of (i) massive particulate displacements, (ii) temperature-related phase changes, or vertical motions of condensible ammonia gas.  The picture which emerges from these observations will havebroad implications for our understanding of the stability of winds in Jupiter.  ",
            "piemail": "go@orton.jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:29:34.104276Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27779,
            "program_id": "GN-2022B-Q-127",
            "pi_coi_names": "Stefan Pelletier, Björn Benneke, Jacob Bean, Andreas Seifahrt, David Kasper, Bibiana Prinoth",
            "title": "Am I Hot Enough? HAT-P-70b as a Gatekeeper of Titanium Absorption in Ultra-hot Jupiter Atmospheres",
            "abstract": "In recent years, planet finder missions have unveiled a new population of exoplanets: `ultra’-hot Jupiters.  These giant gas planets have extremely short orbital periods of a few days at most and are tidally-locked to their host star (like the moon around the Earth).  This tidal-locking causes one side of the planet (the dayside) to be permanently hot always facing towards, and one side of the planet (the nightside) to be relatively colder always facing away from the host star.  The dayside of ultra-hot Jupiters can thus have scorching temperatures well above 2000K, a regime where all chemical species are in vapour form. On the colder nightside however, temperatures can drop below ~1500K at which point it is possible for certain species to condense into cloud droplets and effectively be removed from the upper atmosphere. Recent observations using high-resolution transmission spectroscopy have shown that titanium (Ti) is severely depleted compared to other metals on ultra-hot Jupiters colder than ~2350K.  However, titanium is clearly seen in ultra-hot Jupiters warmer than ~2650K, as if all of a sudden the temperature is hot enough for titanium to be there. We propose to use MAROON-X to probe for Ti and TiO on the ultra-hot Jupiter HAT-P-70b (T~2550K) which will allow us to zone in on exactly what temperature planets become hot enough to release their titanium, helping us better understand the intriguing population of ultra-hot Jupiters. ",
            "piemail": "stefan.pelletier@umontreal.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-06-13T19:33:21.861283Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 404,
            "program_id": "GS-2016A-Q-60",
            "pi_coi_names": "Robert Hargreaves, Thomas R. Geballe, Ken Hinkle, Peter Bernath, Sang Joon Kim",
            "title": "Hydrocarbon emission in the polar regions of Jupiter",
            "abstract": "We plan to observe hydrocarbon emission from the polar regions of Jupiter at high spectral resolution. Measurements of both poles will be made using the Phoenix spectrograph to determine the abundances, effective temperatures and morphology of hydrocarbon species with respect to auroral hot spots. The proposal takes advantage of the rotation of Jupiter to provide full longitudinal coverage of each pole. ",
            "piemail": "rhargrea@odu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:25:08.839650Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 491,
            "program_id": "GS-2016A-Q-11",
            "pi_coi_names": "Danielle Piskorz, Heather Knutson, Henry Ngo",
            "title": "Imaging Friends of Hot Jupiters",
            "abstract": "Approximately 1% of nearby Sun-like stars host short-period gas giant planets, known as hot Jupiters. Standard planet formation models suggest that these planets are unlikely to have formed in place, but instead likely migrated inward from a location beyond the ice line.  However, the dynamical processes that drive this migration are currently poorly understood. In this program we seek to quantify the potential effects of stellar companions on the formation and migration of hot Jupiters by combining long-term radial velocity measurements, adaptive optics images, and high-resolution spectra of fifty hot Jupiter systems. In the spectroscopic portion of our survey we identify approximately ten candidate M dwarf companions to main-sequence FGK stars which display no detectable radial velocity signal over multi-year baselines, yet are not resolved in our dithered Keck AO imaging. We therefore seek to capitalize on the high contrast at short separations provided by the Gemini Differential Speckle Survey Instrument in order to resolve two of the candidate companions detected by the spectroscopic analysis method. ",
            "piemail": "dpiskorz@gps.caltech.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:34:08.284146Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 28082,
            "program_id": "GN-2022B-FT-103",
            "pi_coi_names": "Emily Deibert, Tomás Cassanelli",
            "title": "Chemical Gradients and Heat Transport in an Ultra-Hot Jupiter Atmosphere",
            "abstract": "With an equilibrium temperature of 2500 K and a measured dayside temperature of 3200 K, the recently discovered ultra-hot Jupiter TOI-1518b is an ideal laboratory for furthering our understanding of tidally locked, strongly irradiated exoplanet atmospheres. We propose to observe one transit of TOI-1518b with MAROON-X in order to detect a number of atomic and molecular species in its atmosphere. The broad wavelength coverage and high spectral resolution of MAROON-X will allow us to resolve the absorption signals of these species both spatially and temporally, which in turn will allow us to investigate chemical gradients, global circulation patterns, condensation, and other three-dimensional effects. We have recently been awarded high-resolution emission observations of this planet's dayside from a different spectrograph, which will be complementary to these FT observations. Comparing observations of TOI-1518b's day- and nightside will allow us to further investigate heat transport in its atmosphere. ",
            "piemail": "emilydeibert@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-07-22T18:50:54.464154Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 25166,
            "program_id": "GS-2021A-Q-212",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Jacob Bean, Matteo Brogi, Jennifer Patience, Megan Mansfield, Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Evgenya Shkolnik, Joseph Zalesky",
            "title": "Characterizing the Atmosphere of a Canonical Hot Jupiter with High Resoluton Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy",
            "abstract": "Determining the nature of planetary atmospheres is a key objective of exoplanet science.  A planet’s atmosphere contains a wealth of diagnostic information on basic planetary conditions like climate and composition, with the latter a diagnostic of planetary formation conditions.  Most atmosphere characterization (abundance and temperature determinations) has been driven by low resolution  “expensive” space-based transit spectroscopy.  A novel ground-based approach that leverages high spectral resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy has been steadily gaining in its utility and reliability for atmospheric characterization.  We propose to perform high spectral resolution time series cross-correlation spectroscopy of the canonical transiting hot Jupiter, HD209458b, using the IGRINS spectrograph on Gemini-S.   While a well-studied, easily observable object, the atmosphere of HD209458b has presented some controversial compositional constraints, specifically, past observations have revealed a potentially sub-solar water abundance and an enriched HCN abundance, suggestive a carbon-enriched atmosphere--indicative of a unique mode of planet formation/migration. We propose to test this carbon-rich hypothesis by leveraging the high spectral resolution (~45,000) and broad spectral grasp (1.47 – 2.48 um) of IGRINS which will allow us to tease out the spectral signatures of water, CO, and HCN permitting precision constraints on its atmospheric composition. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:36:00.948853Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 848,
            "program_id": "GS-2014A-Q-22",
            "pi_coi_names": "Lucyna Kedziora-Chudczer, Daniel Cotton, Graeme Salter, Kimberly Bott, Jeremy Bailey",
            "title": "Eclipse spectra of 'hot' Jupiters as diagnostic of composition and structure of their atmospheres",
            "abstract": "We will obtain dayside emission spectra of a sample of the hottest Jupiters to determine their composition, atmosphere structure and help to understand why some of them have inflated radii. We will focus on observations at the H and K bands where absorption features due to water, methane, carbon monoxide and possibly other carbon bearing molecules are thought to be present. The Flamingos 2 spectrograph with long slit at the resolution of R~1200 will be used to obtain spectra that will be modeled with our radiative transfer code VSTAR to determine composition and atmospheric profiles for these planets. ",
            "piemail": "lkedzior@unsw.edu.au",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:31:43.050543Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 851,
            "program_id": "GS-2014A-Q-32",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Andreas Seifahrt, Drake Deming",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:31:50.160087Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27343,
            "program_id": "GS-2022A-FT-203",
            "pi_coi_names": "Megan Mansfield, Joost Wardenier, Michael Line, Vivien Parmentier, Thaddeus Komacek, Peter Smith, Matteo Brogi, Lorenzo Pino, Jacob Bean, Jean-Michel Désert, Alexander Roth, Xianyu Tan, Eliza Kempton, Arjun Savel",
            "title": "Guilt by Dissociation: Searching for Thermochemical Gradients in an Ultra-Hot Jupiter",
            "abstract": "Ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs) have been a primary target of spectroscopic studies of exoplanet atmospheres because their large sizes and high temperatures allow for precise atmospheric characterization. However, several unanswered questions remain about the thermal structures of these planets. A key unanswered question is the extent to which H2 dissociation and recombination impacts the thermal profiles and heat redistribution between the permanent daysides and nightsides of UHJs. Theory predicts that the dissociation of H2 into individual H atoms on the hot daysides of UHJs and recombination of H into H2 on the cooler nightsides should have a strong impact on these planets' circulation, but only one previously known UHJ was hot enough for this effect to be noticeable. We propose to use the IGRINS spectrograph on Gemini-S to measure the thermal profiles on the dayside and nightside of the newly discovered UHJ TOI-2109b. This planet is the second hottest UHJ ever discovered, and therefore will be key to understanding the effect of H2 dissociation/recombination on UHJ atmospheres as a function of temperature. ",
            "piemail": "meganmansfield@arizona.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:36:51.357858Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27854,
            "program_id": "GS-2022B-Q-133",
            "pi_coi_names": "Joost Wardenier, Vivien Parmentier, Michael Line, Jacob Bean, Matteo Brogi, Jean-Michel Desert, Megan Mansfield, Peter Smith, Lorenzo Pino, Jayne Birkby, Elspeth Lee, Siddharth Gandhi, Rico Landman",
            "title": "Unveiling the 3D structure of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 using multiple molecules",
            "abstract": "Ultra-hot Jupiters are tidally locked gas giants with a permanent dayside and a permanent nightside which leads to extremely inhomogeneous chemistry, temperature, and dynamics. This makes them ideal targets for testing theories of exoplanet global climate. High-resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy (HRCCS) provides direct access to the chemical inventory, circulation pattern, and temperatures in exoplanet atmospheres. At high spectral resolution, individual absorption lines can be resolved, allowing for unambiguous indentification of atoms and molecules. Additionally, the Doppler shift and broadening of the spectral lines provide insight into rotation rate and atmospheric dynamics of the planet. We propose to exploit the superior simultaneous wavelength coverage of the IGRINS instrument in the infrared to time-resolve the Doppler shift of the absorption features of water and CO in the atmosphere of WASP-121b. These observations will complement the recent ESPRESSO/VLT observations of iron on the same planet. Because condensation and thermal dissociation create different chemical maps for iron, CO, and water, they can all be used to probe different parts of the atmospheric circulation. Our observations will be the first to use three different chemical species as different tracers of the atmospheric circulation of a canonical planet. We will measure the spatial variability of the winds and the temperature but also the variability of the iron, CO, and water chemical abundances, allowing us to test dynamic, radiative transfer and chemical theories of exoplanets at the same time. ",
            "piemail": "joost.wardenier@physics.ox.ac.uk",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-06-14T12:45:53.672808Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 992,
            "program_id": "GS-2014B-Q-9",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Andreas Seifahrt, Drake Deming",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "desert@colorado.edu, Catherine.Huitson@colorado.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:36:43.844661Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1013,
            "program_id": "GS-2013A-Q-27",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:25:48.940990Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 929,
            "program_id": "GS-2014B-Q-45",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Andreas Seifahrt, Drake Deming",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "desert@colorado.edu, Catherine.Huitson@colorado.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:28:47.280507Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7247,
            "program_id": "GS-2018B-Q-308",
            "pi_coi_names": "Romina Gisele Miculán, Andrea Fabiana Torres",
            "title": "Ground-based low-resolution transmission spectroscopy: first optical exo-atmospheric characterization of the bloated hot Jupiter WASP-122b.",
            "abstract": "Primary transits offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate the atmospheres of planets. When a planet transits, the light of the star is absorbed or not by the exoplanet atmosphere, depending on its compounds. Thus, when the planet absorbs the starlight it looks larger as compared to a planet with an atmosphere not interacting. In consequence, at low-resolution spectroscopy, this absorption translates into a variation of $R_p/R_s$ ($R_p$,$R_s$: planet and star radius) as a function of wavelength. Thanks to this variation, measuring the scale height, H, based on the wavelength, it is possible to infer the chemical composition of the atmosphere of the transiting planet. Owed to the high-quality data that GEMINI/GMOS delivers, we can look deeper into the chemistry of these atmospheres. Here we propose to obtain low-resolution GMOS spectra of the hot Jupiter WASP-122b during one primary transit aimed at characterizing, for the first time, the atmosphere of this exoplanet. This, in turn, will expand the knowledge about the extensive and diverse exoplanetary zoo. ",
            "piemail": "rmiculan@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:36:18.224070Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1116,
            "program_id": "GS-2013B-Q-8",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:24:20.248762Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1131,
            "program_id": "GS-2013B-Q-44",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:25:54.032789Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1157,
            "program_id": "GS-2013B-Q-80",
            "pi_coi_names": "Lucyna Kedziora-Chudczer, Daniel V. Cotton, Kim Bott, Graeme Salter, Jeremy Bailey",
            "title": "Eclipse spectra of 'hot' Jupiters with inflated atmospheres.",
            "abstract": "We will obtain dayside emission spectra of a sample of the hottest Jupiters to determine their composition and help to understand why some of them have inflated atmospheres. We will focus on observations at the H and K bands where absorption features due to water, methane, carbon monoxide and possibly other carbon bearing molecules are thought to be present. We will use the Flamingos 2 spectrograph with long slit at the resolution of R~1200. We will model the spectra with our radiative transfer code VSTAR to determine composition and atmosperic profiles for these planets. This will lead to better constrains on the proposed  models of inflated 'hot' Jupiters. ",
            "piemail": "lkedzior@unsw.edu.au",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:30:58.357310Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1258,
            "program_id": "GS-2012A-Q-24",
            "pi_coi_names": "Ernst de Mooij, Ray Jayawardhana",
            "title": "Optical thermal emission spectrum of WASP-19b, the shortest period hot Jupiter",
            "abstract": "Observations during the secondary eclipse, when a planet passes behind its hoststar, have revealed that some hot Jupiters exhibit a thermal inversion high up in their atmospheres, while others do not. Two competing theories have been proposed to explain this difference: one suggests that the amount of incident stellar radiation affects the presence of an inversion layer, while the level of stellar activity is the determining factor in the other theory. Here we propose to test the two theories by observing the secondary eclipses of the hot Jupiters WASP-19b using differential spectrophotometry with GMOS in MOS mode. WASP-19b orbits an active star, and is strongly irradiated. If stellar activity determines the temperature structure of the planetary atmosphere, then it should not harbor an inversion layer. However, if incident stellar radiation is the governing factor, it should display a temperature inversion. By probing the optical part of the planet's spectral energy distribution, in the Wien limit of the Planck function, these observations are very sensitive to the temperature of the emitting layer in the planetary atmosphere, and the presence or absence of an inversion layer. In addition, molecular features should also be detectable in the absence of an inversion layer.\n",
            "piemail": "demooij@astro.utoronto.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:29:34.104276Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1347,
            "program_id": "GS-2012B-Q-41",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Andreas Seifahrt, Drake Deming",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:25:27.620095Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27824,
            "program_id": "GN-2022B-Q-106",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael H. Wong, Imke de Pater, Glenn S. Orton, Gordon L. Bjoraker, Andrew Stephens",
            "title": "Jupiter M-band Mapping during the Juno Extended Mission",
            "abstract": "Gemini-N NIRI global maps of Jupiter at 5 μm provide a crucial component in a tightly focused observational campaign supporting the Juno Extended Mission investigation of Jupiter's atmosphere. Members of our small team are leading key support observations, each with great independent scientific value. The overarching goal of the joint campaign is to understand the 3D flow in Jupiter's atmosphere, with Hubble data measuring horizontal flow, and Juno / Gemini / Keck / IRTF data measuring vertical flow, composition, and lightning (a tracer of active convection). In particular, areas that are bright in NIRI M-band maps represent clearings in the upper cloud decks, and thus downward dynamical flow. These coordinated observations are highly time-sensitive. We propose full-disk 5-μm maps with NIRI to coincide with 10 perijove passes distributed over the 2021B-2023A semesters (with Long-Term Status for Standard Programs). The maps will play a key role in a worldwide effort to provide global context for Juno atmospheric data, which cover only one narrow north-south swath during each orbit. Our \"lucky imaging\" data will be used to guide sample selections for Juno microwave retrievals of O/H on Jupiter, affected by inhomogeneity in the atmosphere. We will continue to use a more time-efficient observing strategy compared to our initial 2016-2017 observations. ",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-06-13T19:37:44.760748Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1498,
            "program_id": "GS-2011A-Q-11",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Leigh Fletcher, Michelle Edwards",
            "title": "The Spectacular Revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt: Temperature and Haze Characteristics",
            "abstract": "Between 2008 and 2010, Jupiter's typically dark South Equatorial Belt (SEB) begin a dramatic upheaval, fading  to a white zone-like appearance over a matter of months. Thermal imaging has revealed the temperature and cloud variability associated with this transition, and we propose to continue our characterisation of the SEB life cycle by triggering ToO observations in response to a revival of the typical appearance. The revival is expected to begin as a localised disturbance that gradually spreads dark coloration around the whole planet, but the uncertain mechanisms underlying this disturbance makes it impossible to predict when the revival will begin. However, temperatures, cloud opacities and gaseous tracers retrieved from T-ReCS imaging and spectroscopy will allow us to distinguish between competing theories for the dramatic life cycle of the  SEB.   The same imaging and spectroscopy could also be triggered characterize other rapid changes in the atmosphere.  One of these would be to determine the influence of impactors that are detected either by unusual atmospheric features (as on 2009 July 19) or detection of atmospheric bolides (as on 2010 June 3).  Such characterizations bound the size range of the impactor, helping to reveal the populations of sub-kilometer sized bodies in Jupiter-crossing orbits.\n",
            "piemail": "go@scn.jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:31:43.050543Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27891,
            "program_id": "GS-2022B-Q-114",
            "pi_coi_names": "Yeon-ho Choi, Kwang-il Seon, Ho-gyu Lee, Jae-joon Lee, Byeong-cheol Lee",
            "title": "H alpha excess absorption in two hot Jupiters WASP-121b and WASP-18b: Detection of planetary mass loss",
            "abstract": "About 10% of the known exoplanets are gas giants that orbit very close to their parent stars. The atmospheres of these hot Jupiters are heated by the intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation from their host stars, ultimately escaping the planets. The existence of the escaping atmosphere can be probed by observing the H alpha transmission spectrum, which shows an excess absorption relative to the decrease in luminosity caused by the planet. However, only nine planets have been observed to have H alpha excess absorption to date. Thus, discovering more exoplanets showing H alpha excess absorption is essential in studying the atmospheric properties of hot Jupiters. We, therefore, propose to observe two exoplanets, WASP-121b and WASP-18, which are highly expected to be detected with GMOS, to offer a better understanding of the exoplanetary atmosphere. The observational data of WASP-121b will complement the preexisting high-resolution data and demonstrate the usefulness of using instruments with a relatively low resolution. WASP-18 would be discovered as the ``tenth'' planet showing H alpha excess absorption. The data will be analyzed by combining hydrodynamics and radiative transfer models. ",
            "piemail": "yhc@kasi.re.kr",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-07-04T12:48:05.992320Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1593,
            "program_id": "GS-2011B-Q-45",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jacob Bean, Jonathan Fortney",
            "title": "Searching for high altitude absorbers in the atmospheres of two hot Jupiter prototypes",
            "abstract": "The characterization of hot Jupiter atmospheres is an important step for understanding the nature, diversity and origins of these objects. \nWhen observed in transmission in the blue part of the visible, hot Jupiter atmospheres can exhibit strong high altitude absorbers, haze traces and photochemical products. \nThese processes are currently poorly understood and remain unconstrained, yet they drive the energy budget of these planets. \nWe propose to have a better empirical knowledge of hot Jupiter atmospheric chemistry by extending the sample of observed objects in order to conduct comparative exoplanetology studies. \nWe will measure the transmission spectrum of two prototypes of hot Jupiters, CoRoT-1b and Wasp-4b, in the blue optical to reveal the absorption strength of possible chemical features. We will observe the two planets during transits with Gemini-S/GMOS using a recently proved technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. Our objective is to obtain the planet atmospheric compositions and to test the presence or absence of hazes. Furthermore, the combination of the proposed transmission spectrum measurements with optical and NIR transmisson and emission observations will provide strong constraints on the overall physical properties of these planets.",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:28:17.149436Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 2354,
            "program_id": "GS-2007A-C-7",
            "pi_coi_names": "Kurt Retherford, G. Randall Gladstone, J. Hunter Waite, Tom  Stallard, Steven Miller",
            "title": "Phoenix Imaging of Jupiter and Saturn H2 and H3+ Auroral Winds during New Horizons Jupiter Encounter and HST International Heliophysical Year Campaigns",
            "abstract": "High spectral resolution (R~75,000) Gemini/Phoenix observations of the H2 S1(1) quadrupole and several H3+ emission lines near 2 um are needed to produce maps of the neutral and ion winds in the auroral regions of both Jupiter and Saturn.  Neutral and ion wind data are highly diagnostic of magnetosphere-to-ionosphere coupling processes, but are not possible with the New Horizons (NH) spacecraft (now headed to encounter Jupiter in late February 2007), the Cassini spacecraft (now at Saturn), nor with the Hubble Space Telescope, which currently has a large (128 orbit) program dedicated to Jupiter and Saturn aurorae observations during the International Heliophysical Year campaign.  Gemini South is particularly well located in longitude to complement nightside Jupiter auroral disk scans planned for NH on 3 March 2007 with simultaneous H2 and H3+ density, temperature, and wind measurements of the dayside.  The proposed observations would help provide an unprecedented day & night view of Jupiter's H2 and H3+ aurorae morphology at that time.  The wind measurements are at higher spectral resolution than previously obtained, which is required to resolve wind speeds across more of the auroral oval.  Furthermore, the neutral H2 winds in the Saturnian aurora have not yet been measured.  The wind data will be used to constrain thermospheric global circulation models that are used to investigate ionosphere to magnetosphere coupling processes and address key questions such as: How do magnetospheric current systems connect to and flow within giant planet ionospheres?\n\n",
            "piemail": "kretherford@swri.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:30:46.697614Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27870,
            "program_id": "GS-2022B-LP-203",
            "pi_coi_names": "Charles Schambeau, Yanga Fernandez, Olga Harrington-Pinto, Theodore Kareta, Eva Lilly (Schunova), Nalin Samarasinha, Gal Sarid, Jordan Steckloff, Maria Womack, Laura Woodney, Marco Micheli",
            "title": "Investigating the Activity Drivers of Small Bodies in the Centaur-to-Jupiter-Family Transition",
            "abstract": "We request long-term Gemini-N and Gemini-S GMOS imaging of the Solar System’s Centaur-to-Jupiter-Family transition population. This new data will provide vital inputs for a series of thermophysical modeling efforts focused on constraining their nuclei compositions. They contain some of the most pristine materials leftover since the early era of planetesimal formation. Studies of them provide links to the conditions present in the early protoplanetary disk. In particular, our program seeks to monitor their long-term dust comae behaviors to better understand the activity mechanisms in the outer Solar System. Activity in this region is not driven by water ice sublimation because of the low temperatures present. Knowledge for what drives the distant activity is elusive, however there are proposed mechanisms (e.g., CO vs. CO2 sublimation). Our program will address this knowledge gap. We have completed a successful proof-of-concept study through the Gemini poor-weather program and used the methods learned from them to develop an efficient large and long program that will collect the necessary data to address our science goals. ",
            "piemail": "charles.schambeau@ucf.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-06-14T12:47:39.346994Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27022,
            "program_id": "GS-2022A-Q-242",
            "pi_coi_names": "Joost Wardenier, Vivien Parmentier, Michael Line, Jacob Bean, Matteo Brogi, Jean-Michel Désert, Megan Mansfield, Peter Smith, Lorenzo Pino, Jayne Birkby, Elspeth Lee",
            "title": "Flavorous Exoplanets: using multiple molecules to probe the 3D structure of an ultra-hot Jupiter",
            "abstract": "Ultra-hot Jupiters are tidally locked gas giants with a permanent dayside and a permanent nightside which leads to extremely inhomogeneous chemistry, temperature and dynamics. This makes them ideal targets for testing theories of exoplanet global climate. High-resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy (HRCCS) provides direct access to the chemical inventory, circulation pattern, and temperatures in exoplanet atmospheres. At high spectral resolution, individual absorption lines can be resolved, allowing for unambiguous identification of atoms and molecules. Additionally, the Doppler shift and broadening of the spectral lines provide insight into rotation rate and atmospheric dynamics of the planet. We propose to exploit the superior simultaneous wavelength coverage of the IGRINS instrument in the infrared to time- resolve the Doppler shift of the absorption features of water and CO in the atmosphere of WASP-121b. These observations will complement the recent ESPRESSO/VLT observations of iron on the same planet. Because condensation and thermal dissociation create different chemical maps for iron, CO and water, they can all be used to probe different parts of the atmospheric circulation. Our observations will be the first to use three different chemical species as different tracers of the atmospheric circulation of a canonical planet. We will measure the spatial variability of the winds and the temperature but also the variability of the iron, CO and water chemical abundance, allowing us to test dynamic, radiative transfer and chemical theories of exoplanets at the same time. ",
            "piemail": "joost.wardenier@physics.ox.ac.uk",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:30:47.778721Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1666,
            "program_id": "GS-2010A-DD-6",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Leigh Fletcher, Michelle Edwards, Imke de Pater, Padma  Yanamandra-Fisher, Brenden Fisher, Olivier Mousis, Heidi Hammel",
            "title": "Assessing the Influence of the 2010 June 3 Impact on Jupiter's Atmosphere",
            "abstract": "Two amateur observers independently observed an impact flash in Jupiter's atmosphere on June 3, 2010.  This is the first verified impact flash observed since those of several Shoemaker Levy 9 fragments were observed by the Galileo spacecraft in 1994.  We propose thermal imaging and spectroscopy of the impact location using T-ReCS to search for perturbations to the atmospheric temperature structure, gaseous composition and aerosol signatures.  Particularly important is a comparison between T-ReCS observations taken of the July 19, 2009, impact that identified spectral signatures of amorphous olivines and a mixture of crystalline and amorphous silicas in the dusty impact debris.  If no recognizable influence on the atmosphere is detected with thermal imaging, the spectroscopic portion of this program would be cancelled.  The absence of a detection in Jupiter is also an important result: (a) it would imply that the impact shock was confined to a vertical lengthscale smaller than the ~20-km scale height of the atmosphere, (b) it provides an upper limit to the impact energy to compare with the visible flash, and (c) it shows that this small impact did not penetrate to the NH3 cloud.",
            "piemail": "Glenn.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:23:53.411158Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27873,
            "program_id": "GS-2022B-LP-206",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Jonathan Fortney, Nicolas Cowan, Lisa Dang, Megan Mansfield, Jacob Bean, Matteo Brogi, Emily Rauscher, Vivien Parmentier, Peter Smith, Joseph Zalesky, Jennifer Patience, Evgenya Shkolnik, Callie Hood, Siddharth Gandhi, Joost Wardenier, Jean-Michel Desert, Lorenzo Pino, Greg Mace",
            "title": "Roasting Marshmallows: Disentangling Composition & Climate in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres through High-Resolution Thermal Emission Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy",
            "abstract": "Determining the nature of planetary atmospheres is a key objective of exoplanet science. A planet’s atmosphere contains a wealth of diagnostic information on basic planetary conditions like climate (temperature, dynamics) and composition--a tracer of planet formation.  A planetary atmosphere can be probed via transit spectroscopy, with transmission (during primary transit) spectra, which senses the upper atmosphere along the limbs/terminator, dayside emission spectra (obtainable near secondary eclipse), which senses the integrated thermal properties of the planetary dayside, and phase resolved spectroscopy (obtainable at all other planetary phases) , which senses the longitudinal temperature and compositional distributions.  This information has been primarily obtained at low resolution (R<~50) with space-based platforms like the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. However,  a complimentary ground-based approach that leverages high spectral resolution and cross-correlation techniques has been steadily gaining traction, owing to the method’s high sensitivity to molecular detections, thermal structures, and global wind patterns, enabled by stable, broad wavelength coverage, high resolution spectrometers on large aperture telescopes.   Our team has recently utilized IGRINS on Gemini South (GS-2020A-Q-218) to obtain a 13-sigma detection of molecular absorption lines (water and CO) via phase resolved hi-resolution cross-correlation emission spectroscopy of a ~1600K hot Jupiter during pre- and post-eclipse orbital phases. Such a strong detection enables precise constraints on the atmospheric C and O abundances and the vertical thermal structure at a level rivaling that expected from the James Webb Space Telescope.  These preliminary results suggest that the broad wavelength coverage, high resolution , and stability of IGRINS combined with the large aperture on Gemini South makes this an ideal platform for a hot Jupiter emission spectroscopy survey.  As such, we propose high spectral resolution phase-resolved cross- correlation emission spectroscopy survey of 15 hot Jupiters covering 1400 - 2600 K in order to diagnose the chemical, thermal, and dynamical mechanisms that drive key transitions in highly irradiated atmospheres.  The proposed objects are estimated to have comparable planetary atmosphere detectability (relative thermal emission SNR’s ~ 0.5 - 1.5x, accounting for IQ85 conditions) as our initial detection.  For all objects in the survey we will obtain the pre-eclipse phases (~2-6 hrs/planet) with additional visits (up to 6) for the more challenging (cooler) targets in our sample. Our resulting survey will require 131 hrs or spread out over 32 nights (some as half nights or less) over 6 semesters. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-06-14T12:47:54.476730Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27941,
            "program_id": "GS-2022B-Q-212",
            "pi_coi_names": "Yeon-ho Choi, Kwang-il Seon, Ho-gyu Lee, Jae-joon Lee, Byeong-cheol Lee",
            "title": "H alpha excess absorption in two hot Jupiters WASP-121b and WASP-18b: Detection of planetary mass loss",
            "abstract": "About 10% of the known exoplanets are gas giants that orbit very close to their parent stars. The atmospheres of these hot Jupiters are heated by the intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation from their host stars, ultimately escaping the planets. The existence of the escaping atmosphere can be probed by observing the H alpha transmission spectrum, which shows an excess absorption relative to the decrease in luminosity caused by the planet. However, only nine planets have been observed to have H alpha excess absorption to date. Thus, discovering more exoplanets showing H alpha excess absorption is essential in studying the atmospheric properties of hot Jupiters. We, therefore, propose to observe two exoplanets, WASP-121b and WASP-18, which are highly expected to be detected with GMOS, to offer a better understanding of the exoplanetary atmosphere. The observational data of WASP-121b will complement the preexisting high-resolution data and demonstrate the usefulness of using instruments with a relatively low resolution. WASP-18 would be discovered as the ``tenth'' planet showing H alpha excess absorption. The data will be analyzed by combining hydrodynamics and radiative transfer models. ",
            "piemail": "yhc@kasi.re.kr",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-07-04T12:53:25.975577Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 24638,
            "program_id": "GS-2020B-Q-113",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Jacob Bean, Matteo Brogi, Jennifer Patience, Megan Mansfield, Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Evgenya Shkolnik, Joseph Zalesky",
            "title": "Characterizing the Atmosphere of a Canonical Hot Jupiter with High Resoluton Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy",
            "abstract": "Determining the nature of planetary atmospheres is a key objective of exoplanet science. A planet’s atmosphere contains a wealth of diagnostic information on basic planetary conditions like climate and composition, with the latter a diagnostic of planetary formation conditions. Most atmosphere characterization (abundance and temperature determinations) has been driven by low resolution “expensive” space-based transit spectroscopy. A novel ground-based approach that leverages high spectral resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy has been steadily gaining in its utility and reliability for atmospheric characterization. We propose to perform high spectral resolution time series cross- correlation spectroscopy of the canonical transiting hot Jupiter, HD209458b, using the IGRINS spectrograph on Gemini-S. While a well-studied, easily observable object, the atmosphere of HD209458b has presented some controversial compositional constraints, specifically, past observations have revealed a potentially sub-solar water abundance and an enriched HCN abundance, suggestive a carbon-enriched atmosphere--indicative of a unique mode of planet formation/migration. We propose to test this carbon- rich hypothesis by leveraging the high spectral resolution (~45,000) and broad spectral grasp (1.47 – 2.48 um) of IGRINS which will allow us to tease out the spectral signatures of water, CO, and HCN permitting precision constraints on its atmospheric composition. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:31:07.493859Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1954,
            "program_id": "GS-2009A-DD-9",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Imke de Pater, Leigh Fletcher, Heidi Hammel",
            "title": "Gemini South Observations of Jupiter: 2009 Impact",
            "abstract": "An image of Jupiter taken on 19 July 2009 at 15 UT showed an anomalous feature in southern hemisphere.  The world-wide community responded with observations, and the subsequent data strongly suggest that an impact occurred during the 8 hours preceding that discovery image.   We request time to image the impact site in the mid-infrared with TReCS on Gemini.   The data on Thursday will complement planned observations with Hubble in the UV and visible, as well as Keck LGS AO images in the near infrared.\n",
            "piemail": "go@scn.jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:34:34.542534Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1955,
            "program_id": "GS-2009A-Q-21",
            "pi_coi_names": "Bryce Croll, Etienne Artigau, David Lafreniere, Ray  Jayawardhana, Marten Van Kerkwijk",
            "title": "Searching for Atmospheric Absorption in the Transmission Spectra of hot Jupiters ",
            "abstract": "We propose to continue our program searching for absorption from the atmospheric limb of transiting exoplanets by performing differential long-slit spectroscopy using GMOS-South. By simultaneously observing each target with a nearby reference star we expect to calibrate the systematic uncertainties that have limited the sensitivity of previous ground-based attempts. In our 2008B program, we have shown that we can likely detect changes in radii of these exoplanets of 1-2% over 1nm-wide wavelength bins at the 3-sigma level. According to theoretical models, these sensitivities should be sufficient to detect the most prominent chemical species. Successful measurements would advance our understanding of the diversity of hot Jupiters dramatically, given that there are only detections for two planets so far. A null-result would place an upper-limit on the abundance of these chemicals, and argue in favour of obscuring hazes in their upper atmospheres.\n",
            "piemail": "croll@astro.utoronto.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:34:39.129666Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1827,
            "program_id": "GS-2010B-Q-8",
            "pi_coi_names": "Leigh Fletcher, Glenn Orton, Patrick Irwin, Agustin Sanchez-Lavega, Nicholas Teanby",
            "title": "Spectroscopy of Jupiter's Equatorial Dynamics and Giant Vortex Interactions",
            "abstract": "We propose to study Jupiter's equatorial upwelling, mid-latitude storms and changes in the broad axisymmetric belts using Gemini-N/MICHELLE low-resolution spectroscopy.  Maps of tropospheric temperature and composition (ammonia, phosphine and aerosols from Q and N-band spectra) serve as tracers for vigourous convective dynamics associated with Jupiter's belts and zones, giant anticyclones, plumes and upheavals.  The proposed spectral maps, the first since the Cassini encounter in 2000 and with a higher spatial resolution, will allow us to test hypotheses relating changes in the visible cloud deck with changes in the environmental conditions of the Jovian troposphere.  In particular, we propose to (a) search for changes in upwelling rates and locations associated with the bright equatorial zone since the Cassini epoch, (b) study modifications to the strength and depths of Jupiter's giant anticyclones during a close encounter in September 2010 to understand the continuing evolution of the Great Red Spot and Oval BA, and (c) study differences in atmospheric composition associated with a fade and revival sequence of Jupiter's temperate belts as part of a quasi-periodic global upheaval.  ",
            "piemail": "fletcher@atm.ox.ac.uk",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:31:27.662127Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 2243,
            "program_id": "GS-2008B-Q-28",
            "pi_coi_names": "Bryce Croll, David Lafreniere, Ray  Jayawardhana, Etienne Artigau, Marten Van Kerkwijk",
            "title": "Searching for Atmospheric Absorption in the Transmission Spectra of hot Jupiters ",
            "abstract": "We propose to search for absorption from the atmospheric limb of two transiting exoplanets by performing differential long-slit spectroscopy using GMOS-South. By simultaneously observing each target with a nearby reference star we hope to calibrate the systematic uncertainties that have limited the sensitivity of previous ground-based attempts. We expect to be able to detect changes in planet radius of 1-2% over 1nm-wide wavelength bins at the 3-sigma level.  According to theoretical models, these sensitivities should be sufficient to detect the most prominent species. A successful detection of absorption from a chemical species in the atmosphere of these hot Jupiters would reveal its abundance, and would be a significant addition to the list of only two exoplanetary systems where such absorption has been previously detected. A null-result would also be useful as it would place an upper-limit on the abundance of these chemicals in the atmospheres, and argue in favour of obscuring hazes in the upper layers. ",
            "piemail": "croll@astro.utoronto.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:30:31.216414Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 2375,
            "program_id": "GS-2007A-Q-39",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn S Orton, Padma Yanamandra-Fisher, Kevin Baines, Leigh Fletcher, Amy Simon-Miller, Gordon Bjoraker, Randy Gladstone",
            "title": "New Horizons Mission Support: Joint Study of Jupiter's Anticyclonic Vortices and Aurorae",
            "abstract": "We propose a thermal-infrared component to a campaign of support for the Jupiter encounter of the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft early in 2007 (closest approach on February 28).   (1)  We will determine the response of the upper  stratosphere to variations of Jupiter�s aurora and the correlation of neutral atmospheric phenomena with UV and X ray auroral emissions, which are also  associated with an International Heliophysical Year study.  (2) We will determine the thermal response of the atmosphere to dynamics and provide a vertical extension of the winds to be determined by the high spatial resolution near-infrared spectroscopy provided by the spacecraft.",
            "piemail": "go@orton.jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:34:05.807050Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 26136,
            "program_id": "GS-2021B-LP-203",
            "pi_coi_names": "Charles Schambeau, Yanga Fernandez, Olga Harrington-Pinto, Theodore Kareta, Eva Lilly (Schunova), Nalin Samarasinha, Gal Sarid, Jordan Steckloff, Maria Womack, Laura Woodney, Marco Micheli",
            "title": "Investigating the Activity Drivers of Small Bodies in the Centaur-to-Jupiter-Family Transition",
            "abstract": "We request long-term Gemini-N and Gemini-S GMOS imaging of the Solar System’s Centaur-to-Jupiter-Family transition population. This new data will provide vital inputs for a series of thermophysical modeling efforts focused on constraining their nuclei compositions. They contain some of the most pristine materials leftover since the early era of planetesimal formation. Studies of them provide links to the conditions present in the early protoplanetary disk. In particular, our program seeks to monitor their long-term dust comae behaviors to better understand the activity mechanisms in the outer Solar System. Activity in this region is not driven by water ice sublimation because of the low temperatures present. Knowledge for what drives the distant activity is elusive, however there are proposed mechanisms (e.g., CO vs. CO2 sublimation). Our program will address this knowledge gap. We have completed a successful proof-of-concept study through the Gemini poor-weather program and used the methods learned from them to develop an efficient large and long program that will collect the necessary data to address our science goals. ",
            "piemail": "charles.schambeau@ucf.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:31:49.031753Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 28149,
            "program_id": "GN-2022B-FT-105",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Lorenzo Pino, Jacob Bean, Jean-Michel Desert, Andreas Seifhart, Stefan Pelletier, Matteo Brogi, David Kasper, Emily Rauscher",
            "title": "Day-side chemistry and thermal structure of the best studied ultra-hot Jupiter",
            "abstract": "Ultra hot Jupiters (UHJs) were recently recognised as key targets to study planetary atmospheres in extreme regimes. Due to their high temperatures, they offer the unique opportunity to probe key atmospheric properties through the study of refractory elements, at high signal to noise. Burning questions that have arisen concern the atmospheric chemistry, climate and dynamics of these tidally locked exoplanets. We propose MAROON-X and its unique high spectral resolution in the red-optical to test for the presence of chemical compounds that will reveal the atmospheric properties of the best studied UHJ: WASP-76b. More specifically, we will look for the presence of titanium and vanadium oxides (TiO/ VO) and iron hydride (FeH), which are expected to be responsible of the thermal inversions observed in hot exoplanets. We will pinpoint the species responsible for heating the atmosphere of WASP-76b, and measure its detailed day-side thermal sructure. We will thus constrain the chemical, mixing and condensation timescales and inform complementary programs from ground and space observing this same object at diffefent wavelengths, resolution and geometries. Altogether, these programs will shed light on the complex interplay between chemistry and the thermal structure in UHJs. All of these deliveries are crucially needed to test atmospheric models. Ultimaletly, this project forms the basis for future studies aimed at characterizing planets discovered by TESS. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-08-22T19:52:07.763761Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 2772,
            "program_id": "GS-2005A-C-3",
            "pi_coi_names": "Evgenya Shkolnik, Eric Gaidos, Nick Moskovitz, Gordon Walker, David Bohlender",
            "title": "Hot Jupiters, Hot Spots and Hot H3+: A Search of Induced Chromospheric Activity and Planetary Emission",
            "abstract": "We have fused two very complementary programs to search for emission phenomena associated with close-in extrasolar giant planets (?hot jupiters?):\n1) We have observed apparent synchronous heating in the chromospheric emission of the Ca II H & K lines in two close-in extrasolar planetary systems and possible flaring associated with the plant on another star.  We propose to continue observing HD 179949, and add HD 73256, to search for similar phase-dependent heating in the chromospheric He I 10830A line at high-resolution with Phoenix on Gemini-South. This line is partially excited by back-radiation from coronal UV emission and is therefore expected to show more than the few percent modulation we have already detected in the Ca II K line.\n2) We propose to expand our search for Q(1,0) emission of H3+ (lambda = 3.95 microns) from the inflated hydrogen atmospheres of hot jupiters, including those around HD 179949 and HD 73256.  Direct (but unresolved) detection of an extrasolar planet is possible because a small but significant fraction of the total energy received by the planet is re-radiated in a single narrow line within which the flux from the star is limited. We exploit the Doppler shift of the planetary source, which can be as large as 150 km/s, to accurately remove the stellar photosphere signal.  \n",
            "piemail": "shkolnik@ifa.hawaii.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:30:36.395682Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 26159,
            "program_id": "GS-2021B-LP-206",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Jonathan Fortney, Nicolas Cowan, Lisa Dang, Megan Mansfield, Jacob Bean, Matteo Brogi, Emily Rauscher, Vivien Parmentier, Peter Smith, Joseph Zalesky, Jennifer Patience, Evgenya Shkolnik, Callie Hood, Siddharth Gandhi, Joost Wardenier, Jean-Michel Desert, Lorenzo Pino, Greg Mace",
            "title": "Roasting Marshmallows: Disentangling Composition & Climate in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres through High-Resolution Thermal Emission Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy",
            "abstract": "Determining the nature of planetary atmospheres is a key objective of exoplanet science. A planet’s atmosphere contains a wealth of diagnostic information on basic planetary conditions like climate (temperature, dynamics) and composition--a tracer of planet formation.  A planetary atmosphere can be probed via transit spectroscopy, with transmission (during primary transit) spectra, which senses the upper atmosphere along the limbs/terminator, dayside emission spectra (obtainable near secondary eclipse), which senses the integrated thermal properties of the planetary dayside, and phase resolved spectroscopy (obtainable at all other planetary phases) , which senses the longitudinal temperature and compositional distributions.  This information has been primarily obtained at low resolution (R<~50) with space-based platforms like the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. However,  a complimentary ground-based approach that leverages high spectral resolution and cross-correlation techniques has been steadily gaining traction, owing to the method’s high sensitivity to molecular detections, thermal structures, and global wind patterns, enabled by stable, broad wavelength coverage, high resolution spectrometers on large aperture telescopes.   Our team has recently utilized IGRINS on Gemini South (GS-2020A-Q-218) to obtain a 13-sigma detection of molecular absorption lines (water and CO) via phase resolved hi-resolution cross-correlation emission spectroscopy of a ~1600K hot Jupiter during pre- and post-eclipse orbital phases. Such a strong detection enables precise constraints on the atmospheric C and O abundances and the vertical thermal structure at a level rivaling that expected from the James Webb Space Telescope.  These preliminary results suggest that the broad wavelength coverage, high resolution , and stability of IGRINS combined with the large aperture on Gemini South makes this an ideal platform for a hot Jupiter emission spectroscopy survey.  As such, we propose high spectral resolution phase-resolved cross- correlation emission spectroscopy survey of 15 hot Jupiters covering 1400 - 2600 K in order to diagnose the chemical, thermal, and dynamical mechanisms that drive key transitions in highly irradiated atmospheres.  The proposed objects are estimated to have comparable planetary atmosphere detectability (relative thermal emission SNR’s ~ 0.5 - 1.5x, accounting for IQ85 conditions) as our initial detection.  For all objects in the survey we will obtain the pre-eclipse phases (~2-6 hrs/planet) with additional visits (up to 6) for the more challenging (cooler) targets in our sample. Our resulting survey will require 131 hrs or spread out over 32 nights (some as half nights or less) over 6 semesters. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:34:12.228195Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3167,
            "program_id": "GN-2017B-Q-13",
            "pi_coi_names": "Ray Jayawardhana, Lisa Esteves, Ernst de Mooij, Matthew Hooton, Elodie Hebrard",
            "title": "The search for TiO and VO: probing the dayside of newly-discovered hot Jupiter KELT-16b",
            "abstract": "Theories of hot Jupiter atmospheres predicted that atmospheres of highly irradiated planets would have inversion layers, potentially due to TiO/VO, in the upper atmosphere. At lower radiation levels, the compound condenses out and there is no inversion. However, many planets that should harbour an inversion layer do not show one, which might be related to either stellar activity or a different chemical composition, e.g. a high C/O ratio would deplete TiO/VO from the atmosphere. Here we propose to measure the thermal emission from the very hot-Jupiter KELT-16b at red optical wavelengths (770-1000nm) using differential spectroscopy with GMOS-N. This recently discovered planet orbits its star in less than 1 day, and its day-side temperature is expected to exceed >2500K, making it one of the prime targets to host a thermal inversion. The proposed observations will probe the planet's SED just blue-wards of its peak, and are therefore very sensitive to the temperature of the atmosphere. Furthermore, TiO and VO have strong features across this entire wavelength range, thus will allow an unambiguous detection, if they are present, constituting the first definitive detections of these compounds in the day-side of an exoplanet. ",
            "piemail": "rayjay@yorku.ca, ernst.demooij@dcu.ie",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:39:38.221121Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3228,
            "program_id": "GN-2017B-Q-35",
            "pi_coi_names": "Loïc Albert, Po-Shih Chiang, Katelyn Allers, Beth Biller, René Doyon, Mickaël Bonnefoy, Michael Liu, Etienne Artigau",
            "title": "Spectroscopy of Taurus Star Forming Region Candidates Down to 3 Jupiter Masses",
            "abstract": "Exploring the low-mass end of the initial mass function is as relevant as ever as more is learnt about exoplanet statistics and mass functions in young moving groups. There could be a rise in the mass function of young star forming regions at very low masses.  We are conducting a 25 sq. deg. photometric survey at CFHT to isolate planetary-mass objects down to 3 Jupiter masses in the nearby Taurus star-forming region. This survey uses a novel technique: a water band filter coupled with regular J and H bands that is sensitive to the broad water vapor absorption band at 1.45 microns present in the late M, L, T and Y spectral types. Last semester, we started spectroscopic follow-up at Gemini, Palomar and IRTF and demonstrated a high success rate (>50% globally, >75% on fainter Gemini candidates) at identifying substellar objects. We already tripled the number of known L-type objects in Taurus, a result that exceeds predictions from an IMF having a traditional log-normal distribution. To help weed out false positives, we now incorporate PANSTARRS i' and z' photometry in our selection constraints. This Gemini proposal is to continue the spectroscopic follow-up based on a list of 25 candidates. ",
            "piemail": "albert@astro.umontreal.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:31.413186Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1979,
            "program_id": "GS-2009B-Q-14",
            "pi_coi_names": "Christian Marois, Bruce Macintosh, Jean-Rene Roy, Jennifer Patience, Travis Barman, Ben Zuckerman, Inseok Song, David Lafreniere, Rene Doyon",
            "title": "A NICI Search of Jupiter-like Planets Around HR 8799 and Young & Nearby Stars.",
            "abstract": "Following our discovery of the HR 8799 3-planet system at Gemini, we propose to use the simultaneous methane on/off imaging capabilities of NICI to constrain the presence of methane in the planets of this system. We also propose to pursue, with NICI, our ongoing volume-limited (<55 pc) deep AO/ADI A- & F-type star IDPS survey in the South and to acquire new unpublished southern young & close FGKM stars. The main goal of this proposal is to improve the number of observed stars of all spectral types to achieve a survey of ~250 stars (including the GDPS sample) and to derive new and improved statistics on the frequency of planet around star of various masses. We will have, for the first time, a broader picture of the population of massive planets at large semi-major axes around a wide range of stellar mass.",
            "piemail": "christian.marois@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:23:05.449933Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3349,
            "program_id": "GN-2017A-Q-33",
            "pi_coi_names": "James Sinclair, Thomas Greathouse, Henrik Melin, Rohini Giles, Patrick Irwin, Leigh Fletcher, GLENN ORTON",
            "title": "High resolution mapping of Jupiter's stratospheric-auroral interactions during the Juno mission",
            "abstract": "Following a successful orbital insertion in July 2016, the Juno spacecraft is set to perform a unique set of measurements of Jupiter's external magnetospheric environment and the related auroral emission from the ionosphere at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.  However, Juno has no mid-infrared instrument capable of sounding the jovian stratosphere in which a signifcant amount of auroral energy is imparted.  Auroral processes are observed to modify the thermal structure and composition of the stratosphere however the exact mechanisms for this coupling are unknown.  In order to study this phenomenon, during the rare opportunity presented by Juno, we propose to measure spectra of stratospheric emission using the TEXES instrument on Gemini.  The high spatial resolution provided by Gemini and high spectral resolution provided by TEXES will provide a synergistic set of results for comparison with Juno's near-infrared and ultraviolet measurements of auroral emission in order to assess how such processes couple the stratosphere and ionosphere. ",
            "piemail": "james.sinclair@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:11.628123Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3360,
            "program_id": "GN-2017A-Q-53",
            "pi_coi_names": "Katherine de Kleer, IMKE DE PATER",
            "title": "The Impact of Io's Volcanism on Jupiter's Plasma Environment",
            "abstract": "Jupiter's dynamic and volcanically-active moon Io resides in a complex and time-variable system of neutral and ionized particles, which are sourced by volcanic by-products from Io. Over the past two years, the ISAS/JAXA SPRINT-A/EXCEED mission has been observing the EUV emission from ionized S and O in the Jovian system in order to understand the physical processes and sources of variability. In January 2015, the EXCEED Mission detected an increase in sulfur and oxygen ion emission, which occurred simultaneously with a bright eruption on Io that we detected at Gemini N. This event points to a direct link between Io's atmosphere and the plasma density, but the detection of additional eruptions coincident with plasma events are needed to confirm this connection and determine the timescales of the processes. The arrival of Juno to Jupiter earlier this year, and the simultaneous ongoing EXCEED observations, provide a truly unique opportunity to study the effects of Io's volcanism on Jupiter's plasma environment, which these missions will probe via Jupiter's aurorae and direct ion emission. We propose to observe Io with ALTAIR/NIRI at 2.3 and 3.8 microns for 25 minutes, on as many nights as possible during the semester. We will analyze our results in conjunction with the results from the EXCEED and Juno missions, in order to assess correlations between the temporal variability of Io's volcanic activity and the plasma torus. Determining the mechanisms and timescales involved in transporting material from Io to the neutral cloud and plasma torus is the first step to understanding the planetary \"tails\" recently discovered trailing exoplanets in the Kepler dataset. ",
            "piemail": "kdekleer@berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:35.212628Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3368,
            "program_id": "GN-2017A-Q-19",
            "pi_coi_names": "Leigh Fletcher, Thomas Greathouse, Henrik Melin, Patrick Irwin, James Sinclair, GLENN ORTON",
            "title": "Wave Phenomena and Deep Plumes in Jupiter's Tropical Atmosphere",
            "abstract": "TEXES spectral mapping (5-18 µm) of Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere will be used to determine the 3D structure of Jupiter's  temperatures, composition and cloud opacity at a time of unprecedented scrutiny of the giant planet's atmosphere by the Juno mission.  These data will (i) characterise the unique environmental conditions within plumes and hotspots in the northern equatorial belt, (ii) determine the nature of the wave patterns shaping Jupiter's tropics, and (iii) reveal the coupling of the upper troposphere to the deep sub-cloud dynamics diagnosed via near-concurrent radio and microwave observations. ",
            "piemail": "leigh.fletcher@le.ac.uk",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:45:04.702785Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3377,
            "program_id": "GN-2017A-Q-81",
            "pi_coi_names": "Loïc Albert, Po-Shih Chiang, Katelyn Allers, Beth Biller, René Doyon, Mickaël Bonnefoy, Michael Liu, Étienne Artigau",
            "title": "Spectroscopy of Taurus Star Forming Region Candidates Down to 3 Jupiter Masses",
            "abstract": "Exploring the low-mass end of the initial mass function is as relevant as ever as more is learnt about planet statistics and mass functions in young associations. There could be a rise in the mass function of young star forming regions at very low masses.  We have embarked on a photometric survey at CFHT to isolate planetary-mass objects down to 3 Jupiter masses in the nearby Taurus star-forming region. This survey uses a novel technique: a water band filter coupled with regular J and H bands that is sensitive to the broad water vapor absorption band at 1.45 microns present in the late M, L, T and Y spectral types. The same technique with ULBCAM has shown to yield very high success rates (90%) in identifying low-mass objects in Rho Ophiuchus. This Gemini proposal is to establish the sucess rate with the CFHT survey (covering so far 10 square degrees) at masses between 12 and 3 Jupiter masses. We propose to initiate a Gemini North GNIRS follow-up in 17A and complete it in 17B, aiming at observing 10-20% of our 235 candidates. That amount of follow-up is necessary to firmly establish correction factors in tracing the initial mass function. ",
            "piemail": "albert@astro.umontreal.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:45:18.709941Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3535,
            "program_id": "GN-2016A-Q-26",
            "pi_coi_names": "Janis Hagelberg, Monika Lendl, Michael Liu, Andrew Howard",
            "title": "Probing the atmosphere of an evaporating Jupiter candidate",
            "abstract": "We propose to use GMOS-North to obtain spectrophotometric observations of one transit of the exoplanet WASP-103b, a hot Jupiter suspected to be evaporating. This data will be added to the two transit data already obtained to construct a 520 - 930 nm transmission spectrum, allowing to detect Na, K, and TiO. We will also be able to confidently lift the speculation whether the planet is currently loosing its atmosphere. In the case of an evaporating atmosphere we will also be able to deeply probe its composition thanks to the nature of the phenomenon, thus giving valuable insight on the structure and formation history of hot Jupiters. ",
            "piemail": "janis.hagelberg@hawaii.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:45:02.707533Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3558,
            "program_id": "GN-2016B-FT-18",
            "pi_coi_names": "MICHAEL H WONG, IMKE DE PATER, GLENN ORTON, GORDON L BJORAKER, ANDREW STEPHENS",
            "title": "Time-Critical M-band Mapping of Jupiter --- Synergy with Juno, Hubble, VLA, Keck, and IRTF",
            "abstract": "Gemini-N NIRI global maps of Jupiter at 5 µm will provide a crucial component in a tightly focused observational campaign supporting Juno's microwave and infrared investigation of the atmosphere. Members of our small team are leading key support observations, each with great independent scientific value. The overarching goal of the joint campaign is to understand the 3D flow in Jupiter's atmosphere, with Hubble data measuring horizontal flow, and IRTF / Gemini data tracing vertical flow in December (we also have VLA and Keck observations in January). In particular, NIRI will use clearings in the upper cloud decks (which are bright in M-band) to trace locations of downward dynamical flow. These coordinated observations are highly time-sensitive. We propose global 5-µm maps with NIRI to coincide with two Juno observations in December 2016. The maps will play a key role in a worldwide effort to provide global context for Juno atmospheric data, which covers only a narrow north-south swath during the perijove pass of each 14-day orbit. Our lucky imaging data will directly help Juno's Microwave Radiometer find homogeneous samples needed for their O/H abundance measurements. ",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:38:32.327367Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3560,
            "program_id": "GN-2016B-FT-29",
            "pi_coi_names": "MICHAEL H WONG, IMKE DE PATER, GORDON L BJORAKER, ANDREW STEPHENS",
            "title": "Time-Critical M-band Mapping of Jupiter --- Synergy with Keck spectroscopy",
            "abstract": "A worldwide campaign of Jupiter observations has been organized to coincide with perijove passes by the Juno spacecraft. Our team has approved time in January, with simultaneous multiwavelength observations at the VLA, Keck, and Hubble. These dates are now \"orphaned:\" Juno's orbit period change means that the ground (and HST) observations will still take place in January, but without Juno. A campaign with simultaneous 5-micron imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy (R ~20,000) has never been achieved before. Gemini NIRI imaging in M-band will provide half of this state of the art dataset. The overarching goal of the joint campaign is to understand the 3D flow in Jupiter's atmosphere, by measuring horizontal and vertical tracers of flow. The tracers will be simulated using a Jupiter GCM, through a funded collaboration with expert modelers. Our Keck observations are sensitive to regions beneath Jupiter's upper cloud deck, while NIRI would measure the overall opacity of the cloud layer. NIRI's global maps will use clearings in the upper cloud decks (which are bright in M-band) to trace locations of downward dynamical flow. ",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:38:37.045769Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 3631,
            "program_id": "GN-2016B-Q-52",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Thomas Momary, Michael Wong, Kevin Baines, Patrick Irwin, Leigh Fletcher, Andrew Stephens, James Sinclair, Anna Payne, Imke de Pater",
            "title": "High-Resolution Mapping of Jupiter's Clouds in the Near-Infrared: Support for the Juno Mission",
            "abstract": "Juno is poised to make fundamental discoveries about the 3-dimensional climatology and electromagnetic environment of Jupiter.   We propose to verify, optimize and extend Juno's scientific output by supplementing the spatial and spectral coverage and the geometric precision of its near-infrared instrument, JIRAM. We will image Jupiter over a range of methane and molecular-hydrogen absoprtion features to map the horizonal and vertical distribution of clouds at epochs that are contemporaneous with the scheduled passage of the Juno spacecraft in its close-in orbits at Jupiter.  Images of Jupiter will be made at key times when the configuration of the Galilean satellites allow for AO-stablized imaging that is equivalent to ~250 km at Jupiter and the closest possible to JIRAM's spatial resolution on the order of 50km at closest approach to Jupiter. ",
            "piemail": "Glenn.S.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov, glenn.orton@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:06.551543Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1984,
            "program_id": "GS-2009B-Q-31",
            "pi_coi_names": "David Bohlender, Evgenya Shkolnik, Claire Moutou, Stefan Dieters",
            "title": "Magnetospheric Star-planet Interactions: Contemporaneous Phoenix, XMM, and ESPaDOnS Observations of the Hot Jupiter System HD 179949",
            "abstract": "Over the past few years, our group has established that HD 179949 (as well as other hot-Jupiter host stars) exhibits observable signatures of magnetospheric Star-Planet Interactions (SPI), yet understanding this phenomenon in detail requires a collaborative effort to analyze its effect at a range of stellar atmospheric heights, and thus wavelengths.  We have secured time for XMM-Newton X-ray observations of this system in September/October 2009 to search for planet-induced coronal activity, and we are requesting contemporaneous Gemini-South/Phoenix observations to monitor the coronally back-heated He I 10830 line of HD 179949 in search of magnetospheric interations between the star and its hot Jupiter. \n\nIn a separate proposal, we have also requested CFHT/ESPaDOnS optical spectropolarimetric observations in order to obtain the necessary magnetic map of the stellar field.  This unique combination of contemporaneous X-ray, near-IR and optical data  will be used to (1) map the energy distribution of magnetic SPI as a function of stellar atmospheric height from the lower chromosphere (H-alpha), through the mid-chromosphere (Ca II), upper chromosphere (He I) and  the corona (X-ray), (2) map the 3-D magnetic structure of the coronal environment in which the planet is orbiting, and (3) determine the total energy budget needed to constrain the mechanism(s) for the star-planet magnetospheric interactions.",
            "piemail": "david.bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:23:20.505601Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 26662,
            "program_id": "GN-2021B-FT-209",
            "pi_coi_names": "Katherine de Kleer, Imke de Pater",
            "title": "The Impact of Io's Volcanism on Jupiter's Plasma Environment",
            "abstract": "Jupiter's dynamic and volcanically-active moon Io resides in a complex and time-variable system of neutral and ionized particles, which are sourced by volcanic by-products from Io. The Juno mission to Jupiter and the ISAS/JAXA SPRINT-A/EXCEED Earth-orbiting satellite are currently observing the jovian plasma system and aurora in order to understand the physical processes and sources of variability, providing a truly unique opportunity to study the effects of Io's volcanism on Jupiter's plasma environment. Past coordinated campaigns tracking Io's volcanic activity with Gemini N have already uncovered links between specific volcanic eruptions and changes in the neutral and ionized material around Jupiter observed by Juno and EXCEED. We propose to extend coverage of Io's volcanic variability, which is vital for interpreting anomalies observed by EXCEED and Juno. Detection of additional eruptions coincident with plasma events will confirm these connections and allow us to determine the mechanisms and timescales of the processes involved. We propose to observe Io with ALTAIR/NIRI at 2.3 and 3.8 microns for 30 minutes once every 3 days during the month NIRI is scheduled in Nov-Dec. We will analyze our results in conjunction with the results from the EXCEED and Juno missions, in order to assess correlations between the temporal variability of Io's volcanic activity and the plasma torus. ",
            "piemail": "dekleer@caltech.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:42.456610Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4279,
            "program_id": "GN-2013A-Q-75",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (North)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "desert@caltech.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:39:09.602127Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4474,
            "program_id": "GN-2013B-Q-14",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (North)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "JeanMichel.Desert@Colorado.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:49.843314Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4379,
            "program_id": "GN-2013A-Q-38",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (North)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:39.881306Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4449,
            "program_id": "GN-2013B-Q-53",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (North)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "JeanMichel.Desert@Colorado.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:41:14.740537Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4513,
            "program_id": "GN-2013B-Q-70",
            "pi_coi_names": "Henrik Melin, James O'Donoghue, Takeshi Sakanoi, Chihiro Tao, James Blake, Mizuki Yoneda, Sarah Badman, Tom Stallard, Steve Miller, Atsushi Yamazaki, Ichiro Yoshikawa, Yasumasa Kasaba, Tomoki Kimura, Masato Kagitani",
            "title": "Quantifying energy flows between Jupiter's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere",
            "abstract": "Over the past two decades, our understanding of the connection between the volcanism observed at the moon Io – feeding the magnetospheric plasma sheet – and Jupiter’s auroral emissions has developed tremendously. Despite this, we barely grasp the large-scale processes that transfer energy into the auroral region, and how these processes physically affect the state of the upper atmosphere. Between the 1st and 14th of January 2014, a coordinated multi-wavelength, multi-platform, cam- paign will investigate how energy and plasma flows from the Io torus via the magnetosphere into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter. Gemini GNIRS observations will play a cruical part in this campaign, providing a direct measure of how the upper atmosphere responds the particle precipitation. ",
            "piemail": "hmelin@spacewx.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:45:20.364839Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7344,
            "program_id": "GN-2018B-Q-120",
            "pi_coi_names": "Miranda Herman, Ernst de Mooij, Ray Jayawardhana",
            "title": "Characterising the atmosphere of the extremely hot-Jupiter Kepler-13A b",
            "abstract": "The existence, and the cause, of thermal inversion layers in hot Jupiter atmospheres remains a key unresolved issue in the field of exoplanets. The explanations usually involves TiO in the upper atmosphere: with many spectral lines at optical wavelengths, the compound can absorb the incident stellar radiation effectively, thus giving rise to an inversion in the hottest planets, where it can't condense out. Here we propose to use GRACES to probe the presence of TiO, and a thermal inversion, in one of the hottest exoplanets known. With a day-side temperature comparable to that of a mid-M star, Kepler-13A b is hot enough for TiO to remain in the gas phase even on its night-side. Thus it lacks cold-traps on the night-side, which could otherwise deplete TiO through condensation, making Kepler-13A b an ideal target for our investigation. To ensure a robust detection of the targeted molecule, we will combine the signal from a large number of TiO lines, thereby increasing the SNR. Moreover, our analysis will also determine the planet’s orbital velocity directly, and yield a direct measurement of the masses of both the star and planet. ",
            "piemail": "herman@astro.utoronto.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:02.815701Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4084,
            "program_id": "GN-2014A-Q-72",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (North)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "desert@colorado.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com, Catherine.Huitson@Colorado.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:13.477684Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4994,
            "program_id": "GN-2011B-C-1",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jacob Bean, Nikku Madhusudhan, Jean-Michel Desert",
            "title": "The C/O and Metallicity of the Hot Jupiter Wasp-12b",
            "abstract": "The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in the atmosphere of the transiting Hot Jupiter Wasp-12b has recently been determined to be greater than unity from a study of the planet's dayside thermal emission. This is a surprising result because the solar C/O is significantly less than unity, and the naive expectation was that extrasolar gaseous planets would also have a similar abundance pattern. We propose to measure the transmission spectrum of Wasp-12b in the red optical to reveal the strength of expected water absorption features. We will observe two transits of the planet with Gemini-N/GMOS using a recently proved technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. Our objective is to constrain Wasp-12b's C/O using the strength of the water features in transmission as an independent diagnostic of the planet's atmospheric composition. Furthermore, the combination of the proposed transmission spectrum measurements with the existing measurements of the dayside thermal emission will constrain the planet's overall metallicity.",
            "piemail": "jbean@oddjob.uchicago.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:39:47.507940Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 5007,
            "program_id": "GN-2011B-Q-1",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jeremy Bailey, Lucyna Kedziora-Chudczer, Jonathan Horner, Olivier Mousis",
            "title": "The D:H Ratio of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune",
            "abstract": "We will take high resolution (up to R ~ 18,000) GNIRS spectra of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune in the methane transparency windows at 1.55 and 2 microns. Using our radiative transfer models and the latest laboratory spectral line data for methane at low temperatures we will measure the strength of the CH3D bands in these two windows and compare with CH4 lines to measure the D:H ratio in methane. We will compare the results with the predictions of chemical and dynamical models of the early solar system. D/H is an indicator of the location in the solar system at which material formed and so can be used to test current ideas on the early solar system that suggest significant migration of the giant planets to their current orbits. The observations will also enable a better determination of the protosolar D/H ratio.",
            "piemail": "j.bailey@unsw.edu.au",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:40:12.735332Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 5200,
            "program_id": "GN-2010A-DD-4",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Leigh Fletcher, Padma  Yanamandra-Fisher, Brenden Fisher, Michelle Edwards, Olivier Mousis, Heidi Hammel, Imke de Pater",
            "title": "Tracking the Aftermath of a Fireball in Jupiter's Atmosphere: 2010 June 3",
            "abstract": "Two amateur observers independently confirmed the detection of a fireball in Jupiter's atmosphere at visible wavlengths on 2010 June 3 which lasted for several seconds.  We wish to confirm whether this impact created a debris field that is detectable in Jupiter's upper atmosphere or whether it represents an extremely small impact that has no associated upwelling of processed debris from Jupiter, as was the case with nearly all of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts in 1994 and the 2009 July 19 imapct.",
            "piemail": "go@scn.jpl.nasa.gov, Glenn.S.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:49.216920Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 8297,
            "program_id": "GN-2020A-Q-203",
            "pi_coi_names": "MICHAEL H WONG, CHRIS MOECKEL, ROHINI GILES, GORDON L BJORAKER, ANDREW STEPHENS, IMKE DE PATER, GLENN ORTON",
            "title": "Time-Critical M-band Mapping of Jupiter --- Synergy with Juno, Hubble, VLA, Keck, and IRTF",
            "abstract": "Gemini-N NIRI global maps of Jupiter at 5 µm are providing a crucial component in a tightly focused observational campaign supporting Juno's microwave and infrared investigation of the atmosphere. Members of our small team are leading key support observations, each with great independent scientific value. The overarching goal of the joint campaign is to understand the 3D flow in Jupiter's atmosphere, with Hubble data measuring horizontal flow, and Juno / ALMA / VLA / Keck / IRTF / Gemini data tracing vertical flow and composition. In particular, NIRI uses clearings in the upper cloud decks (which are bright in M-band) to map locations of downward dynamical flow. These coordinated observations are highly time-sensitive. We propose full-disk 5-µm maps with NIRI to coincide with 6-7 perijove passes distributed over the 2020A-2021A semesters (with Long-Term Status for Standard Programs). The maps will play a key role in a worldwide effort to provide global context for Juno atmospheric data, which cover only one narrow north-south swath during each 53-day orbit. Our \"lucky imaging\" data will be used to quantify errors in Juno microwave retrievals of O/H on Jupiter, caused by inhomogeneity in the atmosphere. We will continue to use a more time-efficient observing strategy compared to our initial 2016-2017 observations. ",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:25.814191Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 4773,
            "program_id": "GN-2012B-Q-15",
            "pi_coi_names": "Thomas R. Geballe, Steve Miller, Yuk. L. Yung, Sang Joon Kim",
            "title": "The Morphology, Chemistry, and Heating of Jupiter's Aurora via 3-micron Spectroscopy",
            "abstract": "Line emission near 3 μm from CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 has been detected from the south polar region of Jupiter within very limited longitude ranges. The line strengths suggest that a significant amount of heat is being released from the region (Kim et al. 2009). A preliminary analysis (Kim 2011) indicates that the line intensities are inconsistent with current photochemical models (Wong et al. 2000, 2003), and suggests that auroral particle precipitation alone, which is largely responsible for the intense polar line emission from H3+, cannot explain the heat release. Joule heating might be the major cause of the high hydrocarbon line luminosities. We propose to observe 3-μm CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 emissions simultaneously with H3+ at all polar longitudes at high spectral resolution in order to reveal the morphology of the hydrocarbon aurorae, and to properly investigate the hydrocarbon chemistry and heating mechanism in the auroral regions. The spectra will provide a database that will allow proper analysis of the JUNO mission's future low-resolution auroral spectra. ",
            "piemail": "tgeballe@gemini.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:27.527979Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 5490,
            "program_id": "GN-2009A-DD-7",
            "pi_coi_names": "Heidi Hammel, Imke de Pater, Glenn Orton, Leigh Fletcher",
            "title": "Gemini/Michelle Imaging of Jupiter after the 2009 Impact",
            "abstract": "An image of Jupiter taken on 19 July 2009 at 15 UT showed an anomalous feature in southern hemisphere.  The world-wide community responded with observations, and the subsequent data strongly suggest that an impact occurred during the 8 hours preceding that discovery image.   We request time to image the impact site in the mid-infrared with Michelle on Gemini.   The data on Thursday will complement planned observations with Hubble in the UV and visible, as well as Keck LGS AO images in the near infrared.\n",
            "piemail": "hbh@alum.mit.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:36.673594Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 5495,
            "program_id": "GN-2009A-Q-61",
            "pi_coi_names": "Bryce Croll, David Lafreniere, Etienne Artigau, Ray  Jayawardhana, Marten Van Kerkwijk",
            "title": "Searching for Atmospheric Absorption in the Transmission Spectra of hot Jupiters ",
            "abstract": "We propose to continue our program searching for absorption from the atmospheric limb of transiting exoplanets by performing differential long-slit spectroscopy using GMOS-North. By simultaneously observing each target with a nearby reference star we expect to calibrate the systematic uncertainties that have limited the sensitivity of previous ground-based attempts. In our 2008B program, we have shown that we can likely detect changes in radii of these exoplanets of 1-2% over 1nm-wide wavelength bins at the 3-sigma level. According to theoretical models, these sensitivities should be sufficient to detect the most prominent chemical species. Successful measurements would advance our understanding of the diversity of hot Jupiters dramatically, given that there are only detections for two planets so far. A null-result would place an upper-limit on the abundance of these chemicals, and argue in favour of obscuring hazes in their upper atmospheres.\n",
            "piemail": "croll@astro.utoronto.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:49.843314Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 8302,
            "program_id": "GN-2020A-Q-315",
            "pi_coi_names": "Sang Joon Kim, Thomas Greathouse, Yuk L. Yung, Tom R. Geballe, Sungho Lee, Steven Miller",
            "title": "Transient Energetic Auroral Precipitation as the Origin of Jupiter's 8-micron North Polar Hotspot",
            "abstract": "Analysis of our GN-2012B/GNIRS 3.3-μm spectra of Jupiter’s polar regions yielded an unexpected result: The homopause (~1 μbar pressure level) located directly above the long-lasting 8-μm CH4 north-polar hot spot (8CNPHS), which is the size of the Great Red Spot and which has been stationary for 40 years, is cool (Kim et al. 2016). Most of the 8-μm emission of the 8CNPHS originates from CH4 at the ~1 mbar level, i.e., deep  in the stratosphere, where cooling time is several years, much longer than at the μbar homopause, where the cooling time is only~1.3 months. Kim et al. (2017) proposed a mechanism to explain the origin of the 8CNPHS: locally-fixed and transient, but energetic auroral particles, which can penetrate to the 1 mbar level and deposit energy there creating and maintaining the 8CNPHS. Analysis of our 2018A/GNIRS 3.3-μm observation revealed no correlation between the 3.3-μm CH4 emission at the 8CNPHS and solar wind activities, and no strong enhancement of the CH4 emission there (Kim et al. 2019), but the time baseline was too short for us to test the hypothesis.  In order to much more stringently test the transient/energetic aurorae hypothesis, we request ~1.125 hrs/month of GNIRS time for the four months of Semester 2020A when Jupiter is observable, to search for a transient enhancement of the 3.3-μm CH4 emission in the homopause above the 8CNPHS. ",
            "piemail": "sjkim1@khu.ac.kr",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:32.823054Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 25253,
            "program_id": "GN-2021A-Q-118",
            "pi_coi_names": "Sang Joon Kim, Thomas Geballe, Sungho Lee, Yuk L. Yung, Steven Miller, Thomas K. Greathouse",
            "title": "Transient Energetic Auroral Precipitation as the Origin of Jupiter's 8-micron North Polar Hotspot",
            "abstract": "Analysis of 3.3-3.4μm spectra of CH4 line emission from our GN-2012B/GNIRS observations of Jupiter’s polar regions yielded an unexpected result: the homopause, ~1 μbar pressure located directly above the long-lasting 8μm CH4 north-polar hot spot (8CNPHS), was cool compared with the temperatures of nearby auroral regions (Kim et al. 2017). Most of the 8μm CH4 emission from the 8CNPHS originates from CH4 at the ~1 mbar level (i.e., deep in the stratosphere, where the cooling time is several years). That time scale is much longer than the time scale of ~1.3 months at the homopause where the bulk of the 3.3-3.4μm CH4 line emission occurs. Kim et al. (2017) proposed a mechanism to explain the temperature difference: locally-fixed and transient, energetic auroral particles, which can penetrate to the 1 mbar level and deposit energy there creating and maintaining the 8CNPHS at a rather constant brightness. But transient events of this type would cause large variations in the line emission at higher altitudes, where the 3.3-3.4μm CH4 line emission occurs. In order to detect this transient energetic auroral precipitation, we have been monitoring the emission at the northern hotspot and its surroudings. Our monthly observations in 2020A were prevented by COVID-19 until early July 2020, when GNIRS detected a meaningful increase in the CH4 emission compared to the strongest CH4 emission observed in 2018A. Because quantifying the time scale and the enhancement of the 3.3-3.4-μm CH4 emission is key to constraining its excitation mechanism, we request three additional observations of Jupiter in late May, June, and July 2020 when Jupiter is observable, to test the proposal by Kim et al. (2017) for creating and maintaining the 8CNPHS. ",
            "piemail": "sjkim1@khu.ac.kr",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:33.395393Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 5586,
            "program_id": "GN-2009B-Q-93",
            "pi_coi_names": "Christian Marois, Bruce Macintosh, Jean-Rene Roy, Jennifer Patience, Travis Barman, Ben Zuckerman, Insoek Song, David Lafreniere, Rene Doyon",
            "title": "HR 8799 and the Search of Jupiter-like Planets Around Young & Nearby Early-Type Stars.",
            "abstract": "Following our HR 8799 3-planet system discovery at Gemini, we propose to search for an additional planet at ~10 AU in this system and to pursue our ongoing volume-limited (<55 pc) deep AO/ADI A- & F-type star IDPS survey. Analyzes of star forming regions have shown that A-type stars have more frequent/massive disks than less massive stars, potentially triggering more massive planet formation on wider orbits. Stars as massive as A-type stars have been neglected in AO searches, including the Gemini Deep Planet Survey, while radial velocity surveys have reduced sensitivity for such stars. Thus planet/BD formation around more massive stars remains unconstrained. After combining this A-type star survey with our previous GDPS survey and new FGKM proposed targets for NICI, we will have, for the first time, a broader picture of the population of massive planets at large semi-major axes around a wide range of stellar mass.",
            "piemail": "christian.marois@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:40:43.806395Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 26027,
            "program_id": "GN-2021B-Q-110",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael H. Wong, Imke de Pater, Glenn S. Orton, Gordon L. Bjoraker, Andrew Stephens",
            "title": "Jupiter M-band Mapping during the Juno Extended Mission",
            "abstract": "Gemini-N NIRI global maps of Jupiter at 5 μm provide a crucial component in a tightly focused observational campaign supporting the Juno Extended Mission investigation of Jupiter's atmosphere. Members of our small team are leading key support observations, each with great independent scientific value. The overarching goal of the joint campaign is to understand the 3D flow in Jupiter's atmosphere, with Hubble data measuring horizontal flow, and Juno / Gemini / Keck / IRTF data measuring vertical flow, composition, and lightning (a tracer of active convection). In particular, areas that are bright in NIRI M-band maps represent clearings in the upper cloud decks, and thus downward dynamical flow. These coordinated observations are highly time-sensitive. We propose full-disk 5-μm maps with NIRI to coincide with 10 perijove passes distributed over the 2021B-2023A semesters (with Long-Term Status for Standard Programs). The maps will play a key role in a worldwide effort to provide global context for Juno atmospheric data, which cover only one narrow north-south swath during each orbit. Our \"lucky imaging\" data will be used to guide sample selections for Juno microwave retrievals of O/H on Jupiter, affected by inhomogeneity in the atmosphere. We will continue to use a more time-efficient observing strategy compared to our initial 2016-2017 observations. ",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:42.374226Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 5868,
            "program_id": "GN-2008B-Q-87",
            "pi_coi_names": "Bryce Croll, David Lafreniere, Ray  Jayawardhana, Etienne Artigau, Marten Van Kerkwijk",
            "title": "Searching for Atmospheric Absorption in the Transmission Spectra of hot Jupiters ",
            "abstract": "We propose to search for absorption from the atmospheric limb of four transiting exoplanets by performing differential long-slit spectroscopy using GMOS-North. By simultaneously observing each target with a nearby reference star we hope to calibrate the systematic uncertainties that have limited the sensitivity of previous ground-based attempts. We expect to be able to detect changes in planet radius of 1-2% over 1nm-wide wavelength bins at the 3-sigma level. According to theoretical models, these sensitivities should be sufficient to detect the most prominent species. A successful detection of absorption from a chemical species in the atmosphere of these hot Jupiters would reveal its abundance, and would be a significant addition to the list of only two exoplanetary systems where such absorption has been previously detected. A null-result would also be useful as it would place an upper-limit on the abundance of these chemicals in the atmospheres, and argue in favour of obscuring hazes in the upper layers. ",
            "piemail": "croll@astro.utoronto.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:41:27.986946Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 783,
            "program_id": "GS-2014A-Q-59",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Andreas Seifahrt, Drake Deming",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:25:24.798240Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 5356,
            "program_id": "GN-2010B-DD-3",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Leigh Fletcher, Imke de Pater, Padma Yanamandra-Fisher, Michelle  Edwards, Chad Trujillo, Heidi Hammel, Christopher Go",
            "title": "A Major Outbreak in Jupiter's Southern Hemisphere, Reimergence of the South Equatorial Belt?",
            "abstract": "Between 2008 and 2010, Jupiter's typically dark South Equatorial Belt (SEB) begin a dramatic upheaval, fading to a white zone-like appearance over a matter of months. Thermal imaging of this upheaval has revealed the temperature and cloud variability associated with this transition, however further images of the reimergence of the SEB are crucial to continue our characterization of the SEB life cycle. On November 9, 2010, amateur images revealed that the reimergence of the SEB is now underway. Observations in FeII and Br gamma clearly show a spectracular plume feature in the SEB.  In the last 2 days, visible images show a dark region beginning to form on the west side of the plume (4 days after the initial discovery). We expect this localized disturbance to spread dark material overl all longitudes. We propose M-band (4.68 um) with NIRI in natural seeing to determine whether the dark material corresponds to a clearing of clouds, as widely assumed but never verified.  We also propose CH4 (1.58 um), FeII (1.644 um), and H2 1-0S(1) 2.122 um observations with NIRI and AO to constrain the depth from which the upwelling arose - a key to understanding the dynamics of this phenomenon.",
            "piemail": "Glenn.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov, Glenn.S.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:46.112657Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 6048,
            "program_id": "GN-2007A-Q-117",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael H Wong, Imke De Pater, Phil Marcus, Chad Trujillo, Glenn Orton, Kevin Baines, Amy Simon-Miller, Nancy Chanover",
            "title": "Jupiter's red spots during the New Horizons flyby",
            "abstract": "We propose a high resolution near-IR imaging study of Jupiter's\nred spots as part of a coordinated New Horizons and Hubble Space\nTelescope campaign in late February, 2007. High resolution\nnear-IR imaging is an excellent tool for measuring the variation\nof aerosol opacity in Jupiter's atmosphere, as a function of\nlatitude, longitude, and altitude. The aerosol distribution holds\nclues to a number of questions: What is the source of the upper\ntropospheric haze? Are the chromophores, responsible for the red\ncolor of the Great Red Spot and the smaller Red Oval, located\nwithin this haze or the clouds below?  Gemini imaging in K-band\ncould also determine whether there is an ammonia concentration\nanomaly associated with the Red Oval, as is known to be the case\nfor the larger Great Red Spot.",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:51.227194Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 26228,
            "program_id": "GN-2021A-FT-217",
            "pi_coi_names": "Stevanus Kristianto Nugroho, Christopher Watson, Ernst de Mooij, Joost Wardenier, Motohide Tamura, Neale Gibson, Vivien Parmentier",
            "title": "Probing the 3D Properties and the Variability of an Ultra Hot Jupiter's Atmosphere",
            "abstract": "Using high-resolution spectroscopy, the atomic/molecular bands in the spectrum of an exoplanet are resolved into individual absorption lines. The variation of Doppler shifts caused by the planet’s orbital motion enables absorption lines in the exoplanet spectrum to be distinguished from telluric lines and ensures an unambiguous detection of specific molecules. As it is sensitive to the position of the lines, this technique allows us to quantify the properties of atmospheric dynamics of a planet such as planetary rotation and wind velocity, as well as search for atmospheric variability during the transit. Here, we propose to perform high cadence high-resolution transmission spectroscopy of KELT-20b using GRACES at the Gemini-North to constrain the 3D properties of the planet's atmosphere and search for the signature of atmospheric variability especially by targeting Fe I and Fe ii lines. These observations will provide us with rich data sets which also allow us to search for a much weaker element that has not been previously detected (e.g. TiO, FeH, AlO, OH). Detecting variability would be very insightful since both clouds- and magnetohydrodynamic-driven variability has been postulated in literature but has never been unambiguously observed in an exoplanet atmosphere. If successful, it would provide extensive clues about the timescales at which the multiple atmospheric feedbacks operate and/or if understood correctly, measure the magnetic field of exoplanets, which has so far been elusive. ",
            "piemail": "stevanus.nugroho@nao.ac.jp",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:56.156840Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 24909,
            "program_id": "GN-2020B-FT-208",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Lorenzo Pino, Jacob Bean, Andreas Seifahrt, Stefan Pelletier, Matteo Brogi, Vivien Parmentier, Joost Wardenier, Jean-Michel Desert",
            "title": "Day-side chemistry and thermal structure of the best studied ultra-hot Jupiter",
            "abstract": "Ultra hot Jupiters (UHJs) were recently recognised as key targets to study planetary atmospheres in extreme regimes. Due to their high temperatures, they offer the unique opportunity to probe key atmospheric properties through the study of refractory elements, at high signal to noise. Burning questions that have arisen concern the atmospheric chemistry, climate and dynamics of these tidally locked exoplanets. We propose MAROON-X and its unique high spectral resolution in the red-optical to test for the presence of chemical compounds that will reveal the atmospheric properties of the atmosphere. More specifically, we will look for the presence of titanium and vanadium oxides (TiO/VO) and iron hydride (FeH), which are expected to be responsible of the thermal inversions observed in hot exoplanets. We will target the best studied UHJ, WASP-76b, to pinpoint the species responsible for heating its atmosphere, and measure its detailed day-side thermal sructure. We will thus constrain the chemical, mixing and condensation timescales and inform complementary programs, part of which we acquired in our team. Altogether, these programs will shed light on the complex interplay between chemistry and the thermal structure in UHJs. All of these deliveries are crucially needed to test atmospheric models. Ultimaletly, this project forms the basis for future studies aimed at characterizing planets discovered by TESS. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu,l.pino@uva.nl",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:58.361247Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 6996,
            "program_id": "GN-2018A-Q-202",
            "pi_coi_names": "MICHAEL H WONG, GORDON L BJORAKER, Andrew Stephens, Imke de Pater, MEGAN BARNETT, Glenn Orton",
            "title": "Time-Critical M-band Mapping of Jupiter --- Synergy with Juno, Hubble, VLA, Keck, and IRTF",
            "abstract": "Gemini-N NIRI global maps of Jupiter at 5 µm will provide a crucial component in a tightly focused observational campaign supporting Juno's microwave and infrared investigation of the atmosphere. Members of our small team are leading key support observations, each with great independent scientific value. The overarching goal of the joint campaign is to understand the 3D flow in Jupiter's atmosphere, with Hubble data measuring horizontal flow, and VLA / Keck / IRTF / Gemini data tracing vertical flow. In particular, NIRI will use clearings in the upper cloud decks (which are bright in M-band) to trace locations of downward dynamical flow. These coordinated observations are highly time-sensitive. We propose full-disk 5-µm maps with NIRI to coincide with four perijove passes in 2018A and one in 2018B (under NOAO Long Term status). The maps will play a key role in a worldwide effort to provide global context for Juno atmospheric data, which covers only a narrow north-south swath during the perijove pass of each 53-day orbit. Our lucky imaging data will be used to quantify errors in Juno microwave retrievals of O/H on Jupiter, caused by inhomogeneity in the atmosphere. We adopt a new, more time-efficient observing strategy compared to previous semesters. ",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:18.397006Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7019,
            "program_id": "GN-2018A-Q-326",
            "pi_coi_names": "Loïc Albert, Po-Shih Chiang, Katelyn Allers, Beth Biller, René Doyon, Mickaël Bonnefoy, Michael Liu, Étienne Artigau",
            "title": "Spectroscopy of Taurus Star Fomring Region Candidates Down to 3 Jupiter Masses",
            "abstract": "Exploring the low-mass end of the initial mass function is as relevant as ever as more is learnt about exoplanet statistics and mass functions in young moving groups. There could be a rise in the mass function of young star forming regions at very low masses.  We are conducting a 25 sq. deg. photometric survey at CFHT to isolate planetary-mass objects down to 3 Jupiter masses in the nearby Taurus star-forming region. This survey uses a novel technique: a water band filter coupled with regular J and H bands that is sensitive to the broad water vapor absorption band at 1.45 microns present in the late M, L, T and Y spectral types. In semester 17A, we started spectroscopic follow-up at Gemini, Palomar and IRTF and demonstrated a high success rate (73% on fainter Gemini candidates) at identifying substellar objects. We already doubled the number of known L-type objects in Taurus, a result that exceeds predictions from an IMF having a traditional log-normal distribution. To help weed out false positives, we now incorporate PANSTARRS i' and z' photometry in our selection constraints. This Gemini proposal is to continue the spectroscopic follow-up based on a list of 15 candidates. ",
            "piemail": "albert@astro.umontreal.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:06.437971Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7030,
            "program_id": "GN-2018A-Q-221",
            "pi_coi_names": "Sang Joon Kim, Thomas K. Greathouse, Yuk L. Yung, Thomas Geballe, Steven Miller",
            "title": "Transient Energetic Auroral Precipitation as the Origin of Jupiter's 8-micron North Polar Hotspot",
            "abstract": "Analysis of 3.3-3.4-μm spectra of CH4 line emission from our GN-2012B/GNIRS observations of Jupiter’s polar regions yielded an unexpected result: the homopause (~1 μbar pressure level) located directly above the long-lasting 8-μm CH4 north-polar hot spot (8CNPHS) was cool compared with the temperatures of nearby auroral regions (Kim et al. 2016). Most of the 8-μm emission of the 8CNPHS originates from CH4 at the ~1 mbar level (i.e., deeper in the stratosphere, where the cooling time is several years), much longer than at the altitude of the homopause where the buk of the 3.3-3.4-μm CH4 line emission occurs. Kim et al. (2016) proposed a mechanism to explain the temperature difference: locally-fixed and transient, but energetic auroral particles, which can penetrate to the 1 mbar level and deposit energy there creating and maintaining the 8CNPHS. In order to detect this transient energetic auroral precipitation, we request 0.75 hrs/month of GNIRS time for the six months of Semester 2018A to measure the transient enhancement of the 3.3-3.4-μm CH4 emission in the homopause above the 8CNPHS, where the cooling time is only ~1.3 months. ",
            "piemail": "sjkim1@khu.ac.kr, tgeballe@gemini.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:52.703418Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7503,
            "program_id": "GS-2019A-Q-233",
            "pi_coi_names": "Sergio Cellone, Carolina von Essen, Maximiliano Moyano D'Angelo",
            "title": "Are ultra Hot Jupiters a well distinguished group? Probing oxides and clear skies in the atmospheres of the hottest exoplanets known",
            "abstract": "After the first exoplanets were discovered more than 20 years ago, their atmospheric characterization became plausible extremely fast. Nonetheless, the current sample of well characterized exoplanets is so diverse, that it is extremely challenging for us to understand from these data how atmospheres actually form. The ultra Hot Jupiters (T >2200 K) are expected to conform a well distinguished group, as models predict their atmospheres to be clear and filled with gaseous oxides such as TiO, VO and AlO, producing large variability in the optical wavelengths. This, however, has still to be proven. As part of a larger sample, we propose to search for oxides in the newly discovered ultra hot Jupiter WASP-167b by means of low resolution, primary transit observations. If we find the assumptions about ultra Hot Jupiters to be true, this research will help us refine models of planetary atmospheres, which will contribute to the recognition of habitable worlds in the nearby future. ",
            "piemail": "scellone@casleo.gov.ar",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:30:45.534705Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7611,
            "program_id": "GN-2019A-Q-320",
            "pi_coi_names": "Sang Joon Kim, Thomas Greathouse, Yuk Yung, Thomas Geballe, Sungho Lee, Steven Miller",
            "title": "Transient Energetic Auroral Precipitation as the Origin of Jupiter's 8-micron North Polar Hotspot",
            "abstract": "Analysis of 3.3-3.4-μm spectra of CH4 line emission from our GN-2012B/GNIRS observations of Jupiter’s polar regions yielded an unexpected result: The homopause (~1 μbar pressure level) located directly above the long-lasting 8-μm CH4 north-polar hot spot (8CNPHS) is cool compared with the temperatures of nearby auroral regions (Kim et al. 2017). Most of the 8-μm emission of the 8CNPHS originates from CH4 at the ~1 mbar level (i.e., deeper in the stratosphere, where the cooling time is several years), much longer than at the altitude of the homopause. Kim et al. (2017) proposed a mechanism to explain the temperature difference: locally-fixed and transient, but energetic auroral particles, which can penetrate to the 1 mbar level and deposit energy there creating and maintaining the 8CNPHS. In order to detect this transient/energetic aurorae, we request 0.75 hrs/month of GNIRS time for the five months of Semester 2019A when Jupiter is observable to measure the transient enhancement of the 3.3-3.4-μm CH4 emission in the homopause above the 8CNPHS, where the cooling time is only ~1.3 months. This program was awarded time in 2018A but the poor weather through the semester resulted in limited data that are mostly of insufficent quality to determine if the proposed mechanism can explain the temperature difference. ",
            "piemail": "sjkim1@khu.ac.kr",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:13.097574Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7608,
            "program_id": "GN-2019A-Q-202",
            "pi_coi_names": "MICHAEL H WONG, GORDON L BJORAKER, ANDREW STEPHENS, IMKE DE PATER, MEGAN BARNETT, GLENN ORTON",
            "title": "Time-Critical M-band Mapping of Jupiter --- Synergy with Juno, Hubble, VLA, Keck, and IRTF",
            "abstract": "Gemini-N NIRI global maps of Jupiter at 5 µm will provide a crucial component in a tightly focused observational campaign supporting Juno's microwave and infrared investigation of the atmosphere. Members of our small team are leading key support observations, each with great independent scientific value. The overarching goal of the joint campaign is to understand the 3D flow in Jupiter's atmosphere, with Hubble data measuring horizontal flow, and VLA / Keck / IRTF / Gemini data tracing vertical flow. In particular, NIRI will use clearings in the upper cloud decks (which are bright in M-band) to trace locations of downward dynamical flow. These coordinated observations are highly time-sensitive. We propose full-disk 5-µm maps with NIRI to coincide with four perijove passes in 2018A and one in 2018B (under NOAO Long Term status). The maps will play a key role in a worldwide effort to provide global context for Juno atmospheric data, which covers only a narrow north-south swath during the perijove pass of each 53-day orbit. Our lucky imaging data will be used to quantify errors in Juno microwave retrievals of O/H on Jupiter, caused by inhomogeneity in the atmosphere. We adopt a new, more time-efficient observing strategy compared to previous semesters. ",
            "piemail": "mikewong@astro.berkeley.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:01.276927Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7547,
            "program_id": "GS-2019A-Q-310",
            "pi_coi_names": "Romina Gisele Miculán, Janis Hagelberg, Monika Lendl, Andrea Fabiana Torres, Rodrigo Díaz",
            "title": "Ground-based low-resolution transmission spectroscopy: exo-atmospheric characterization of the bloated hot Jupiter WASP-23b.",
            "abstract": "Primary transits offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate the atmospheres of planets. When a planet transits, the light of the star is absorbed or not by the exoplanet atmosphere, depending on its compounds. Thus, when the planet absorbs the starlight it looks larger as compared to a planet with an atmosphere not interacting. In consequence, at low-resolution spectroscopy, this absorption translates into a variation of Rp/Rs (Rp, Rs: planet and star radius respectively) as a function of wavelength. Thanks to this variation, measuring the scale height, H, based on the wavelength, it is possible to infer the chemical composition of the atmosphere of the transiting planet. Owed to the high-quality data that GEMINI/GMOS delivers, we can look deeper into the chemistry of these atmospheres. Here we propose to obtain low-resolution GMOS spectra of the hot Jupiter WASP-23b during two primary transits aimed at characterizing, for the first time, the atmosphere of this exoplanet. This, in turn, will expand the knowledge about the extensive and diverse exoplanetary zoo. ",
            "piemail": "rmiculan@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:36:53.554634Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7694,
            "program_id": "GS-2019A-DD-105",
            "pi_coi_names": "Leonardo A. dos Santos, Romain Allart, Vincent Bourrier, David Ehrenreich, Julia Seidel, Christophe Lovis",
            "title": "Measuring the extended atmosphere of a transiting hot Jupiter with Phoenix",
            "abstract": "The search for transiting exoplanets with Kepler and other  surveys revealed a gap in the exoplanet population known as the hot Neptune desert that is partially explained by atmospheric escape. In this context, studying the extended atmospheres of transiting planets are crucial to understand their evolution. Until recently, the only instrument able to observe extended atmospheres in exoplanets was HST, due to its UV capabilities. However, the metastable He triplet at 1.083 microns was shown to be a viable feature to probe extended atmospheres. The Phoenix spectrograph is the only instrument in the southern hemisphere that can observe in this wavelength. Using Phoenix, we propose a pilot observation program to measure the transmission spectrum of WASP-127 b in the He 1.083 microns line and assess the viability of the instrument for this purpose. This is a very low-density and highly irradiated hot Jupiter in the edge of the desert, therefore a favorable target for transmission spectroscopy. If successful, this pioneering program will open the doors to probe the extended atmospheres of southern exoplanets discovered by TESS. ",
            "piemail": "leonardo.dossantos@unige.ch",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:29:36.551735Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7609,
            "program_id": "GN-2019A-Q-218",
            "pi_coi_names": "Miranda Herman, Ray Jayawardhana, Ernst de Mooij, Emily Deibert",
            "title": "Characterizing the atmosphere of the extremely hot Jupiter Kepler-13Ab",
            "abstract": "The existence, and cause, of thermal inversion layers in hot Jupiter atmospheres remains a key unresolved issue in the field of exoplanets. One explanation involves TiO in the upper atmosphere: with many spectral lines at optical wavelengths, the compound can absorb incident stellar radiation effectively, giving rise to an inversion in the hottest planets, where it can't condense out. Here we propose to use GRACES to probe the presence of TiO, and a thermal inversion, in one of the hottest exoplanets known. With a day-side temperature comparable to a mid-M star, Kepler-13Ab is hot enough for TiO to remain in the gas phase even on its night-side. Thus it lacks cold-traps on the night-side, which could otherwise deplete TiO through condensation, making Kepler-13Ab an ideal target for our investigation. To ensure a robust detection of the targeted molecule, we will combine the signal from a large number of TiO lines, thereby increasing the SNR. Moreover, our analysis will determine the planet’s orbital velocity directly, and yield a direct measurement of the masses of both the star and planet. This is a re-submission of a successful 2018B proposal which did not get useful data due to technical problems with GRACES. ",
            "piemail": "herman@astro.utoronto.ca",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:42:03.087664Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7644,
            "program_id": "GN-2019A-Q-221",
            "pi_coi_names": "Rohini Giles, Alessandro Mura, Michael Wong, James Sinclair, ANDREW STEPHENS, Thomas Momary, Thomas Greathouse, Giuseppe Sindoni, Kevin Baines, Patrick Irwin, Leigh Fletcher, IMKE DE PATER, Fachreddin Tabataba-Vakili, GLENN ORTON, Alberto Adriani",
            "title": "High-resolution mapping of Jupiter's clouds in the near infrared: support for the Juno mission PJ18-PJ21",
            "abstract": "We propose to extend and enhance the Juno mission's scientific output by taking high-resolution images of Jupiter that will supplement the spatial and spectral coverage provided by the mission’s instruments. We will use NIRI to take AO-stabilized images over a range of methane and molecular-hydrogen absorption features at 1.59-2.28 µm, which together probe the cloud distribution in the ~0.06-0.8 bar pressure region. The observations will be made at key times that coincide with the closest approach of the Juno spacecraft to Jupiter (the perijoves), and the global maps produced by NIRI will allow the observations from the Juno spacecraft to be placed into context. This is especially important for the microwave (MWR) and CCD (JunoCam) instruments, which are restricted to narrow longitudinal swaths, and the near-infrared instrument (JIRAM), which is now restricted to high latitudes. ",
            "piemail": "rohini.s.giles@jpl.nasa.gov, glenn.orton@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:29.741749Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7021,
            "program_id": "GN-2018A-Q-124",
            "pi_coi_names": "Katherine de Kleer, Imke de Pater",
            "title": "The Impact of Io's Volcanism on Jupiter's Plasma Environment",
            "abstract": "Jupiter's dynamic and volcanically-active moon Io resides in a complex and time-variable system of neutral and ionized particles, which are sourced by volcanic by-products from Io. Over the past two years, the ISAS/JAXA SPRINT-A/EXCEED mission has been observing the EUV emission from ionized S and O in the Jovian system in order to understand the physical processes and sources of variability. In January 2015, the EXCEED Mission detected an increase in sulfur and oxygen ion emission, which occurred simultaneously with a bright eruption on Io that we detected at Gemini N. This event points to a direct link between Io's atmosphere and the plasma density, but the detection of additional eruptions coincident with plasma events are needed to confirm this connection and determine the timescales of the processes. The arrival of Juno to Jupiter earlier this year, and the simultaneous ongoing EXCEED observations, provide a truly unique opportunity to study the effects of Io's volcanism on Jupiter's plasma environment, which these missions will probe via Jupiter's aurorae and direct ion emission. We propose to observe Io with ALTAIR/NIRI at 2.3 and 3.8 microns for 25 minutes, on as many nights as possible during the semester. We will analyze our results in conjunction with the results from the EXCEED and Juno missions, in order to assess correlations between the temporal variability of Io's volcanic activity and the plasma torus. Determining the mechanisms and timescales involved in transporting material from Io to the neutral cloud and plasma torus is the first step to understanding the planetary \"tails\" recently discovered trailing exoplanets in the Kepler dataset. ",
            "piemail": "dekleer@caltech.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:19.192820Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 8175,
            "program_id": "GS-2020A-Q-218",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Jennifer Patience, Evgenya Shkolnik, Jacob Bean, Megan Mansfield, Joseph Zalesky, Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Matteo Brogi",
            "title": "Characterizing the Atmosphere of a Canonical Hot Jupiter with High Resoluton Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy",
            "abstract": "Determining the nature of planetary atmospheres is a key objective of exoplanet science.  A planet’s atmosphere contains a wealth of diagnostic information on basic planetary conditions like climate and composition, with the latter a diagnostic of planetary formation conditions.  Most atmosphere characterization (abundance and temperature determinations) has been driven by low resolution  “expensive” space-based transit spectroscopy.  A novel ground-based approach that leverages high spectral resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy has been steadily gaining in its utility and reliability for atmospheric characterization.  We propose to perform high spectral resolution time series cross-correlation spectroscopy of the canonical transiting hot Jupiter, HD209458b, using the IGRINS spectrograph on Gemini-S.   While a well-studied, easily observable object, the atmosphere of HD209458b has presented some controversial compositional constraints, specifically, past observations have revealed a potentially sub-solar water abundance and an enriched HCN abundance, suggestive a carbon-enriched atmosphere--indicative of a unique mode of planet formation/migration. We propose to test this carbon-rich hypothesis by leveraging the high spectral resolution (~45,000) and broad spectral grasp (1.47 – 2.48 um) of IGRINS which will allow us to tease out the spectral signatures of water, CO, and HCN permitting precision constraints on its atmospheric composition. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:33:05.958918Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7913,
            "program_id": "GN-2019B-Q-129",
            "pi_coi_names": "James Sinclair, Arrate Antunano Martin, Thomas Greathouse, Chihiro Tao, Rohini Giles, Leigh Fletcher, Padraig Donnelly, John Lacy, Glenn Orton",
            "title": "High spatial and spectral TEXES mapping of Jupiter's auroral regions",
            "abstract": "We propose to perform mid-infrared mapping of Jupiter's high-northern and high-southern latitudes using TEXES on Gemini-North.  The spectra of Jupiter's H2 S(1), CH3, CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 emission will be measured with a rare combination of high spectral resolving power (R ~ 85000) and high diffraction-limited spatial resolution . The observed spectra will be inverted to derive the three-dimensional (latitude, longitude and altitude) distributions of temperature and hydrocarbon abundances at Jupiter's poles and their temporal variability over the course of six days.  These results will be used to assess the temporal variability in magnitude and morphology of stratospheric conditions in Jupiter's auroral regions and their dependence on external solar-wind conditions at Jupiter. ",
            "piemail": "james.sinclair@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:41:06.130354Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7949,
            "program_id": "GN-2019B-Q-102",
            "pi_coi_names": "Arrate Antuñano, Oliver R. T. King, Thomas Greathouse, Padraig Donnelly, Rohini Giles, Henrik Melin, Mike Roman, Leigh Fletcher, James Blake, James Sinclair, Glenn Orton",
            "title": "Characterising Jupiter’s Equatorial Zone Disturbance and the Deep Atmosphere via Gemini-Juno Comparisons",
            "abstract": "The powerful combination of Gemini and the TEXES instrument in March 2017 provided the highest-resolution spectral maps of Jupiter's tropical atmosphere ever obtained, surpassing all previous mid-IR observations from Earth or space. Here we propose to acquire a multi-spectral global map in October 2019 between Juno's 22nd and 23rd periojoves, using the same nine spectral settings (R=2000-15000) at 5-18 µm from March 2017, but extending the previous coverage from equatorial to mid- and high-latitudes. These high-spatial reoslution observations will provide a unique opportunity for TEXES to characterise the thermal, aerosol, and compositional changes driving a substantial disturbance in Jupiter’s Equatorial Zone (EZ), recently discovered by our team. This is the first such disturbance in ~13 years. The proposed global map will allow us (a) characterise  the environmental changes and evolution of this rare EZ disturbance, and relate this to changes in the upwelling of NH3 gas observed by Juno’s Microwave Radiometer in the deeper atmosphere, and (b) reveal the thermal structure assoacited with Jupiter's polar vortices, something impossible without an 8-m telescope. ",
            "piemail": "aam58@leicester.ac.uk",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:43:10.346919Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7975,
            "program_id": "GN-2019B-Q-234",
            "pi_coi_names": "Constantine Tsang, Thomas Greathouse, John Spencer, Miguel Lopez-Valverde, Emmanuel Lellouch",
            "title": "Io's Atmospheric Response to Sunlight after Jupiter Eclipses",
            "abstract": "This proposal concerns the central mystery of Io's SO2 dominated atmosphere - whether it is primarily supported by the constant injection of volcanic emissions, or through sublimation support of SO2 ice on its surface. If the later is true, the atmosphere will response quickly to sunlight, as vapor pressure is strongly coupled to surface temperature. This proposal builds on a highly successful observing run in 2013 with Gemini-TEXES, where Io's atmosphere was observed on two occasions in Jupiter eclipse ingress. Modeling showed the atmosphere to have collapsed, indicating sublimation support. However, HST-COS observations at egress shows no response to sunlight, and are at odds with the Gemini-TEXES ingress results. This proposal aims to provide further compelling evidence for either process and will shed light on these contradicting pieces of evidence. We are requesting a total of 6 hrs of TEXES time, 3 hr per eclipse egress, to determine the nature of Io's atmospheric support. We will observe its atmosphere as it exits Jupiter eclipse at 18.9 μm (530.4 cm-1) at R~70,000. ",
            "piemail": "con@boulder.swri.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:52.163168Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 27826,
            "program_id": "GN-2022B-LP-203",
            "pi_coi_names": "Charles Schambeau, Yanga Fernandez, Olga Harrington-Pinto, Theodore Kareta, Eva Lilly (Schunova), Nalin Samarasinha, Gal Sarid, Jordan Steckloff, Maria Womack, Laura Woodney, Marco Micheli",
            "title": "Investigating the Activity Drivers of Small Bodies in the Centaur-to-Jupiter-Family Transition",
            "abstract": "We request long-term Gemini-N and Gemini-S GMOS imaging of the Solar System’s Centaur-to-Jupiter-Family transition population. This new data will provide vital inputs for a series of thermophysical modeling efforts focused on constraining their nuclei compositions. They contain some of the most pristine materials leftover since the early era of planetesimal formation. Studies of them provide links to the conditions present in the early protoplanetary disk. In particular, our program seeks to monitor their long-term dust comae behaviors to better understand the activity mechanisms in the outer Solar System. Activity in this region is not driven by water ice sublimation because of the low temperatures present. Knowledge for what drives the distant activity is elusive, however there are proposed mechanisms (e.g., CO vs. CO2 sublimation). Our program will address this knowledge gap. We have completed a successful proof-of-concept study through the Gemini poor-weather program and used the methods learned from them to develop an efficient large and long program that will collect the necessary data to address our science goals. ",
            "piemail": "charles.schambeau@ucf.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-06-13T19:37:54.914866Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 8321,
            "program_id": "GN-2020A-Q-113",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Alessandro Mura, Michael Wong, James Sinclair, ANDREW STEPHENS, Thomas Momary, Thomas Greathouse, Giuseppe Sindoni, ROHINI GILES, Kevin Baines, Patrick Irwin, Leigh Fletcher, Fachreddin Tabataba-Vakili, Imke de Pater, Alberto Adriani",
            "title": "High-resolution 3-dimensional near-infrared mapping of Jupiter's evolving aerosol structure during the Juno mission PJ26-PJ28",
            "abstract": "We propose to measure the ongoing evolution of vertical aerosol structure in several key features of Jupiter’s atmosphere, concomitantly with Juno spacecraft measurements.   Our goal is to determine or constrain the physical and chemical processes controlling the relevant phenomena, each of which extends and enhances contemporaneous observations by the Juno mission or future observations by providing a context in time.  (1) A quasi-periodic Equatorial Zone (EZ) disturbance causes a brownish coloration of a normally white appearance and creates large swaths of anomalously cloudless and desiccated areas in a region of Jupiter that is normally cloudy and moist.  Such a state is at odds with Juno’s Microwave Radiometer (MWR) observations that imply that the EZ has uniformly deep-rooted upwelling motions causing cloudy wet conditions at all longitudes.   We appear to be at the beginning of such a disturbance, which should be in a mature stage in semester 2020A, based on historical records. We propose obtaining high-resolution NIRI images contemporaneously with the MWR observations of the EZ at Juno’s 26th close approach (“perijove”) when the spacecraft orientation will be changed to enable MWR access to near-equatorial latitudes specifically to determine the deep atmospheric structure associated with this EZ disturbance.  These observations will also provide a vertical and horizontal context for the more limited observations of Juno’s visible camera (JunoCam) and 2-5 µm camera/spectrometer (JIRAM).  (2) Major perturbations to the typical appearance of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (GRS) that took place in 2019 May are expected to be repeated, as a result of the ever-decreasing longitudinal extent of the GRS and its frequent interactions with smaller vortices.  The 3-dimensional structure of these interactions and the responsible dynamics are not well understood, and the high-resolution NIRI observations will provide critical constraints on models for such interactions. They will also document the pace of changes to 3-dimensional structure of the GRS as a function of its continued longitudinal shrinking.  We will also measure changes to the 3-dimensional structure of Oval BA (“the little red spot”) to determine changes following its very recent return to a pre-2005 uniformly white appearance. (3) The evolution of aerosol properties of Jupiter’s polar regions and their distribution is also of considerable interest to the Juno mission.  Such observations will provide contextual information for the MWR, which will continue to sample the north polar region with increasing spatial resolution, as well as the JunoCam and JIRAM instruments which will continue to sample portions of the south polar region.  The proposed observations will provide a critical component of a campaign of Earth-based support for Juno (https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations) that is not available at any other facility. ",
            "piemail": "glenn.s.orton@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:44:45.524624Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 26218,
            "program_id": "GS-2021A-FT-114",
            "pi_coi_names": "Michael Line, Matteo Brogi, Vivien Parmentier, Megan Mansfield, Peter Smith, Jennifer Patience, Evgenya Shkolnik, Jonathan Fortney, Greg Mace, Jacob Bean, Jean-Michel Desert",
            "title": "A Definitive Water Abundance Determination in the Canonical Hot Jupiter HD 209458b with IGRINS",
            "abstract": "Determining the nature of planetary atmospheres is a key objective of exoplanet science. A planet’s atmosphere contains a wealth of diagnostic information on basic planetary conditions like climate and composition, with the latter a diagnostic of planetary formation conditions. Most atmosphere characterization (abundance and temperature determinations) has been driven by low resolution space-based transit spectroscopy. A novel ground-based approach that leverages high spectral resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy has been steadily gaining in its utility and reliability for atmospheric characterization. We propose to perform high spectral resolution time series cross- correlation spectroscopy of the canonical transiting hot Jupiter, HD209458b, using the IGRINS spectrograph on Gemini-S. While well-studied, the atmosphere of HD209458b has presented some controversial compositional constraints, specifically, past transmission spectroscopy observations from HST and from the ground (CRIRES, GIANO) have revealed a potentially sub-solar water abundance and elevated abundances of  carbon species (HCN, CH4), suggestive of a carbon-enriched atmosphere. These results are contradictory to thermal emission/dayside eclipse observations with HST.  It is urgent to solve this controversy on this canonical transiting exoplanet in order to properly interpret the wealth of observations of giant exoplanet atmospheres that are currently ongoing. We propose to test this carbon- rich hypothesis by leveraging the high spectral resolution (~45,000) with innovative cross-correlation techniques and the broad spectral grasp (1.47 – 2.48 um) of IGRINS which can tease out the spectral signatures of water, CO, and HCN permitting precision constraints on its atmospheric composition. ",
            "piemail": "mrline@asu.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:27:23.779938Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 24518,
            "program_id": "GN-2020B-Q-120",
            "pi_coi_names": "Glenn Orton, Rohini Giles, Andrew Stephens, Thomas Momary, Kevin Baines, James Sinclair, Patrick Irwin, Michael Wong, Imke de Pater, Leigh Fletcher, Thomas Greathouse, Alberto Adriani, Giuseppe Sindoni, Alessandro Mura",
            "title": "Near-Infrared Imaging of Jupiter's Cloud and Haze Variations Simultaneous with the Juno Mission",
            "abstract": "We propose to measure the evolution of vertical aerosol structure in several key features of Jupiter’s atmosphere, concomitantly with Juno spacecraft measurements.   Our goal is to understand the processes controlling key phenomena, each of which strategically enhances contemporaneous observations by the Juno mission.  (1) Great Red Spot “flakes”: Major perturbations to the appearance of the Great Red Spot are anticipated, similar to the ones that took place in 2019 May, as the result of its ever-decreasing width.  We will determine the 3-dimensional structure of the Great Red Spot and its frequent interactions with smaller vortices, to differentiate between alternative dynamical models. (2) The Equatorial-Zone Cycle. A predicted quasi-periodic disturbance of the Equatorial Zone (EZ) was marked by the dark-brown coloration of a normally white cloud deck. Our previous NIRI observations imply that the coloration is associated with increased particle density of an upper-atmospheric haze. We want to verify that the haze is dissipating now that the EZ appears to be brightening. (3)  Polar Haze Origin and Evolution. We will characterize the properties of the complicated distribution of aerosols in Jupiter’s polar regions and their evolution. This is of considerable interest to the Juno mission in order to provide spatial and spectral context to its novel remote-sensing measurements of these regions. The proposed observations will provide a critical component of a campaign of Earth-based support for Juno that is not available at any other facility (see https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations). ",
            "piemail": "glenn.s.orton@jpl.nasa.gov",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T21:41:21.502486Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 24570,
            "program_id": "GS-2020B-Q-230",
            "pi_coi_names": "Rachel Matson, Katie Lester, Steve Howell, Luke Borma, Josh Winn",
            "title": "Hot Jupiters - Orbital Period Changes or Binary Accelerations?",
            "abstract": "The orbital period of the hot Jupiter WASP-4b appears to be decreasing at a rate of -8.64 msec/yr, based on transit-timing measurements spanning 12 years. Proposed explanations for the period change include tidal orbital decay, apsidal precession, and acceleration of the system along the line of sight. We performed new radial velocity measurements and speckle imaging of WASP-4. The radial-velocity data show that the system is accelerating towards the Sun at a rate of -0.04220 m/s/day. Thus, the observed change in the transit period is mostly or entirely produced by the line-of-sight acceleration of the system. This acceleration is likely caused by a wide-orbiting companion of mass 10-300 MJup and orbital distance 10-100AU, based on the magnitude of the radial-velocity trend and the non-detection of any companion in the Gemini-South speckle images. We expect that the orbital periods of 1 out of 3 hot Jupiters will change at rates similar to WASP-4b. Based on the hot-Jupiter companion statistics of Knutson et al. (2014), our planned observing proposal aims to detect and/or set robust luminosity limits on the companions of Hot Jupiter systems using a sample of 16 stars showing linear RV trends. ",
            "piemail": "rmatson1@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:23:02.701389Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 7717,
            "program_id": "GS-2019A-Q-407",
            "pi_coi_names": "Charles Schambeau, Yanga Fernandez, Gal Sarid, Maria Womack, Mario de Pra, Nalin Samarasinha, Laura Woodney, Noemi Pinilla-Alonso, Simone Ieva",
            "title": "Characterizing Objects in the Centaur-to-Jupiter-family Transition",
            "abstract": "The Centaurs represent intermediary small-icy bodies in orbits between Neptune and Jupiter and the dynamical link between the outer solar system's Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), with diverse surface colors, to the inner solar system's Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), with a unimodal population of “gray” surface colors. The Centaur population historically has been observationally divided into two populations: (1) a “red” population having surface colors similar to the ultrared surfaces found on many TNOs, hypothesized to be the product of reddening of complex organics produced by cosmic-ray irradiation and (2) a “gray” population having neutral solar-type colors similar to JFCs nuclei surfaces. It is uncertain as to whether this bimodal nature is the result of migration of two distinct population of objects into the Centaur region or whether they consist of different evolutionary stages of objects from a single parent population. Activity-driven blanketing is a proposed mechanism for the Centaur bimodal color distribution. Reinforcing this hypothesis, recently a few active and inactive Centaurs were found for the first time with colors that classified them as intermediate among the two groups, suggesting objects at different stages of the blanketing process. We propose investigating the activity-driven blanketing hypothesis by acquiring new Gemini-GMOS imaging of a strategically selected group of active Centaurs and JFCs with perihelion greater than 4.5 au to determine ensemble properties and comet-like activity behaviors for this transitional group of distantly active small-icy bodies. ",
            "piemail": "charles.schambeau@ucf.edu",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:33:25.923739Z"
        },
        {
            "id": 1038,
            "program_id": "GS-2013A-Q-69",
            "pi_coi_names": "Jean-Michel Desert, Jonathan Fortney, Jacob Bean, Marcel Bergmann, Sara Seager, Drake Deming, Andreas Seifahrt",
            "title": "Comparative Exoplanetology of Hot-Jupiter Prototypes (South)",
            "abstract": "We propose to initiate a comparative exoplanetology survey of the atmospheres of ten close-in gas giant transiting exoplanets which are representative of their class. The purpose of this project is to understand the nature, diversity, and origins of exoplanetary systems. We will observe an ensemble of ten prototypes of hot gas giants with GeminiNS-GMOS using a robust technique for obtaining space-telescope quality exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the ground. We will obtain transmission spectra of their atmospheres in the visible at high photometric precision. When compared to atmospheric models, these precise observations will reveal the presence and abundances of chemical species in the planets' atmospheres. We will conduct a comparative study of the composition of these planets, and correlate our results with the planetary and stellar physical properties. Our project will be complementary and will expand other surveys of gas-giant exoplanets that use ground and space-based facilities (with HST, Spitzer, and Magellan). ",
            "piemail": "jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu, marcelbergmann@gmail.com",
            "coiemail": null,
            "science_band": null,
            "partners": null,
            "rollover": null,
            "too": false,
            "completion": null,
            "allocated_hours": null,
            "remaining_hours": null,
            "last_refreshed": "2022-05-05T22:27:32.076164Z"
        }
    ]
}